Sequential, concurrent, and transformative Employ these methods Open-ended questions, emerging approaches, text or image data Closed-ended questions, predetermined approaches, numeric data Both open- and closed-ended questions, both emerging and predetermined approaches, and both quantitative and qualitative data and analysis Use these practices of research as the researcher Source: Creswell , Research Design: Qualitative data requires an inductive approach of analysis.
On the other hand quantitative data uses deductive approach. However, there should be some consistency between methods, methodology and analysis. This is important in order to demonstrate logic. Thus, in order to make the research credible to the reader the research should lead towards the research findings. It places great emphasis on the methods used to collect or generate data. However, it places less emphasis on the analytical techniques to interpretation of data.
Therefore, it is widely used for analysing qualitative data. The inductive approach includes:. It does not focus on testing hypothesis. Thematic analysis can either realistically present experiences, meaning and the reality of participants. This can also be used to examine the effects of those experiences, events and realities operating within society.
Descriptive statistics helps to draw inferences about populations and to estimate the parameters Trochim Inferential statistics are based on the descriptive statistics and the assumptions that generalise the population from a selected sample Trochim Deductive approach is popularly used as it enables the research to reason from generic to specific.
It provides insights into the problem or helps to develop ideas or hypotheses for potential quantitative research. Qualitative Research is also used to uncover trends in thought and opinions, and dive deeper into the problem. Qualitative data collection methods vary using unstructured or semi-structured techniques.
The sample size is typically small, and respondents are selected to fulfil a given quota. Quantitative Research is used to quantify the problem by way of generating numerical data or data that can be transformed into usable statistics. It is used to quantify attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and other defined variables — and generalize results from a larger sample population. Quantitative Research uses measurable data to formulate facts and uncover patterns in research.
Quantitative data collection methods are much more structured than Qualitative data collection methods. Quantitative data collection methods include various forms of surveys — online surveys, paper surveys , mobile surveys and kiosk surveys, face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, longitudinal studies, website interceptors, online polls, and systematic observations. Snap has many robust features that will help your organization effectively gather and analyze quantitative data.
While defining quantitative and qualitative research based on their uses and purposes may be considered a practical approach for researcher, the difference actually lies on their roots: Procedures, designs, concepts, purposes and uses emanate from there. Example on qualitative research referring to quality where problems are answered without generally focusing on quantity, are descriptions in words coming form interviews, discussions or observations.
However when words are translated to quantity in order to describe or to generalize, then the research is now called quantitatitive research. The bottom lines are the questions: Many thanks for giving me clear understanding around the differences between the qualitative and quantative research.
Data is collected by various means following a strict procedure and prepared for statistical analysis. Nowadays, this is carried out with the aid of sophisticated statistical computer packages. The analysis enables the researchers to determine to what extent there is a relationship between two or more variables. This could be a simple association e. Statistical analysis permits researchers to discover complex causal relationships and to determine to what extent one variable influences another.
The results of statistical analyses are presented in journals in a standard way, the end result being a P value. For people who are not familiar with scientific research jargon, the discussion sections at the end of articles in peer reviewed journals usually describe the results of the study and explain the implications of the findings in straightforward terms. Objectivity is very important in quantitative research. Consequently, researchers take great care to avoid their own presence, behaviour or attitude affecting the results e.
They also critically examine their methods and conclusions for any possible bias. Researchers go to great lengths to ensure that they are really measuring what they claim to be measuring. For example, if the study is about whether background music has a positive impact on restlessness in residents in a nursing home, the researchers must be clear about what kind of music to include, the volume of the music, what they mean by restlessness, how to measure restlessness and what is considered a positive impact.
This must all be considered, prepared and controlled in advance. External factors, which might affect the results, must also be controlled for. In the above example, it would be important to make sure that the introduction of the music was not accompanied by other changes e. Some possible contributing factors cannot always be ruled out but should be acknowledged by the researchers.
The main emphasis of quantitative research is on deductive reasoning which tends to move from the general to the specific.
This is sometimes referred to as a top down approach. The validity of conclusions is shown to be dependent on one or more premises prior statements, findings or conditions being valid. If the premises of an argument are inaccurate, then the argument is inaccurate.
This type of reasoning is often also associated with the fictitious character Sherlock Holmes. However, most studies also include an element of inductive reasoning at some stage of the research see section on qualitative research for more details. Researchers rarely have access to all the members of a particular group e. However, they are usually interested in being able to make inferences from their study about these larger groups.
However, the extent to which generalizations are possible depends to a certain extent on the number of people involved in the study, how they were selected and whether they are representative of the wider group. For example, generalizations about psychiatrists should be based on a study involving psychiatrists and not one based on psychology students. In most cases, random samples are preferred so that each potential participant has an equal chance of participating but sometimes researchers might want to ensure that they include a certain number of people with specific characteristics and this would not be possible using random sampling methods.
Generalizability of the results is not limited to groups of people but also to situations. It is presumed that the results of a laboratory experiment reflect the real life situation which the study seeks to clarify.
When looking at results, the P value is important. P stands for probability. It measures the likelihood that a particular finding or observed difference is due to chance. The P value is between 0 and 1. The closer the result is to 0, the less likely it is that the observed difference is due to chance. Qualitative research is the approach usually associated with the social constructivist paradigm which emphasises the socially constructed nature of reality.
It is about recording, analysing and attempting to uncover the deeper meaning and significance of human behaviour and experience, including contradictory beliefs, behaviours and emotions. The approach adopted by qualitative researchers tends to be inductive which means that they develop a theory or look for a pattern of meaning on the basis of the data that they have collected. This involves a move from the specific to the general and is sometimes called a bottom-up approach.
However, most research projects also involve a certain degree of deductive reasoning see section on quantitative research for more details. Qualitative researchers do not base their research on pre-determined hypotheses.
Nevertheless, they clearly identify a problem or topic that they want to explore and may be guided by a theoretical lens - a kind of overarching theory which provides a framework for their investigation. The approach to data collection and analysis is methodical but allows for greater flexibility than in quantitative research.
Data is collected in textual form on the basis of observation and interaction with the participants e. It is not converted into numerical form and is not statistically analysed. Data collection may be carried out in several stages rather than once and for all. The researchers may even adapt the process mid-way, deciding to address additional issues or dropping questions which are not appropriate on the basis of what they learn during the process.
In some cases, the researchers will interview or observe a set number of people. In other cases, the process of data collection and analysis may continue until the researchers find that no new issues are emerging. This may mean adopting a less formal and less rigid approach than that used in quantitative research.
Research approach is a plan and procedure that consists of the steps of broad assumptions to detailed method of data collection, analysis and interpretation. It is therefore, based on the nature of the research problem being addressed.
Research approach can be divided into three types: Deductive research approach; Inductive research approach; Abductive research approach; The relevance of hypotheses to the study is the main distinctive point between deductive and inductive approaches.
Two important components in each definition are that the approach to research involves philosophical assumptions as well as distinct methods or procedures. The broad research approach is the. plan or proposal to conduct research, involves the intersection of . From field research to analysis and evaluation efforts, GIS Research Methods adopts a wide-ranging perspective and approach that doesn't rely on a particular program's version or incarnation to prove successfully accessible.
operations research n the analysis of problems in business and industry involving the construction of models and the application of linear programming, critical path analysis, and other quantitative techniques, (Also) operational research. Pragmatic approach to research (mixed methods) The pragmatic approach to science involves using the method which appears best suited to the research problem and not getting caught up in philosophical debates about which is the best approach.