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Anxiety Disorders

A Brief History of Homework

❶Methods of reducing freedom might be a giving your child less control about where and when homework is completed, b parents checking the quality of completed homework every evening, c parents and teachers maintaining ongoing communication in the assignment book, or d the child not being able to participate in a planned activity such as a field trip.

Laying Bare the Culture of Homework

Consequences for high school students
Four basic principles to enhance study skills.
Causes & Diagnosis

If your child has an anxiety disorder, simple, everyday activities can be a real challenge. What readers are saying: The guidance laid out is priceless and will be beneficial to anyone suffering from anxiety. Cognitive behavioral therapy is the backbone of Dr. Walker's approach and she makes the approach clear and accessible to non-professionals.

Sponsored Products are advertisements for products sold by merchants on Amazon. When you click on a Sponsored Product ad, you will be taken to an Amazon detail page where you can learn more about the product and purchase it. To learn more about Amazon Sponsored Products, click here. Clinical psychologist Walker, PhD, whose skills are based in cognitive behavioral therapy CBT , assists parents in taking a leading role in helping their elementary-aged child overcome anxiety, panic, and obsessions.

The author begins by explaining that "children with anxiety disorders often function well in terms of grades, achievement, and more, yet live a tortured internal life rife with worry, fear, or excessive guilt or feelings of responsibility. Those with the confidence and consistency to implement the practices introduced here will find Walker's approach useful. In our busy pediatric practice, we are seeing an increased number of children with anxiety these days.

Parents want to know what to do and what not to do to help their child with anxiety. Walker explains how trying to comfort your child can actually be feeding their anxiety. She offers up clear and powerful tools that parents can use with their child that will help them now and for the rest of their lives.

Bridget Flynn Walker provides a clear and easily readable understanding of what makes anxiety worse, and scientifically-proven strategies for managing anxiety. Most importantly, she provides a practical road map that parents can follow to help their children become braver and more confident in tackling their fears.

The cognitive behavioral therapy CBT strategies outlined are easy to understand and straightforward to implement. This book provides a real-life tool kit that will help families and their physicians ease the fears that children often have.

This step-by-step guide—full of evidence-based strategies to implement with children—uses easy-to-understand language, and offers vivid examples and helpful worksheets which make the book simple and effective to use. It outlines essential psychoeducation about anxiety, and how to tackle its treatment.

Anxiety Relief for Kids is a go-to resource for parents or anyone else trying to help a child with excessive anxiety. I recommend it highly. The book is highly approachable, and synthesizes much of the currently available information on child anxiety and evidence-based treatment strategies.

Parents will particularly appreciate the friendly and unassuming language, and the real-life examples that bring many familiar dilemmas to life. Bridget Flynn Walker has a clear voice and a knack for explaining ideas so that they just make sense.

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The 5 Love Languages by Gary Chapman. You Are a Badass by Jen Sincero. Chapter 4 presents more about how to do this. Another supposed virtue of homework is that it teaches time management. Does time management really mean the ability to delay gratification—to work when we want to play? Homework does not reinforce time management if adults have to coerce children into doing it; if children are coerced, they are not in charge of scheduling the time or making decisions about the use of the time.

If we are using homework to teach responsibility, won't 10 minutes of homework work just as well as 60 minutes? If we are using homework to teach time management, don't long-range projects that require scheduled planning do a better job of that than daily assignments? Lots of homework is a sign of a rigorous curriculum.

Many people equate lots of homework with a tough school, regardless of the type or length of assignments Jackson, Parents will often brag: If some homework is good for children, then more homework must be even better. If 10 math problems for homework are good, then 40 problems must be better. This belief, more than any other, is responsible for the piling on of hours of homework in many schools today.

Yet we all know that those assignments could be busywork, of no educational value Jackson, Ah, if it were only that simple. More time does not necessarily equal more learning. The "more is always better" argument ignores the quality of work and the level of learning required.

Rigor is challenge—but it is not necessarily the same challenge for each student. Given the diverse nature of students, challenging learning experiences will vary for different students.

Good teachers give homework; good students do their homework. Probably the most disturbing belief is the belief in the inherent goodness of homework, regardless of the type or length of assignment. Homework advocates have believed it for years, never questioning whether it might not be true.

This belief is born from both the belief that homework teaches responsibility and discipline and the belief that "lots of homework" equals "rigor. This mindset is so ingrained that teachers apologize to other teachers for not giving homework! Yet we know that some very good teachers don't give a lot of homework or give none at all. Instead of being apologetic, teachers who don't give homework should simply explain that they do such a good job of teaching that homework is not necessary.

The danger in the belief that good students do their homework is the moral judgment that tends to accompany this belief.

To children who dutifully complete homework, we often attribute the virtues of being compliant and hardworking. To children who don't complete homework, we often attribute the vices of laziness and noncompliance.

But is a lack of virtue the reason many children don't do homework? Therein lies the problem. Students without supportive parents or with single parents overburdened trying to make ends meet , with inadequate home environments for completing homework, or with parents intellectually unable to help them are less likely to complete homework Vatterott, Are these less advantaged students bad?

These beliefs form a dogma, a homework culture. The foundations of that culture are a trinity of very old philosophies. Homework culture is a complex mix of moralistic views, puritanism, and behaviorism.

The beliefs that underlie the homework dogma have been fed by our moralistic views of human nature, the puritan work ethic that is embedded in our culture, and behaviorist practices that still reside in our schools. The five beliefs and these three philosophies are so well entwined, it's hard to tell where one idea begins and another ends. An exploration of these philosophies will illuminate the foundations of the dogma that is homework culture.

Historically, one mission of the school has been to instill moral values. Unfortunately, much of traditional schooling operates on the theory that children are basically lazy and irresponsible, that they can't be trusted, and that they have to be coerced into learning. They must be controlled and taught to be compliant. Therefore, it follows that it is necessary to use homework to teach responsibility.

If students naturally have a tendency to do evil, then they cannot be trusted to use time wisely. Idle hands are the devil's workshop, and therefore children should not be idle. This philosophy assumes not only that children don't want to learn but also that learning is inherently distasteful. No one would dispute that we want to encourage students to work hard.

After all, hard work is what made America great, right? The Puritans believed hard work was an honor to God that would lead to a prosperous reward. That work ethic brings to mind the stereotypical stern schoolmarm, rapping a ruler against the desk and saying "Get busy!

Hard work is good for you regardless of the pointlessness of the task. Hard works builds character. Hard work is painful; suffering is virtuous. Here we see the origin of Belief 4, that more work equals rigor, and Belief 5, that "good" students do their homework and "good" teachers make students work hard. Unfortunately, when it comes to learning, the bleaker side of the puritan work ethic has also taken hold: If it is "rigorous," or better yet painful, then it must have merit.

The work ethic is obvious in views that homework is a way to train students how to work—that homework trains students how to study, how to work diligently and persistently, and how to delay gratification Bempechat, Along similar lines, homework is also viewed as practice for being a worker: Homework is work , not play.

So it helps to have the right attitude. Homework means business, and the student should expect to buckle down. As in the workplace, careless efforts and a laissez-faire attitude are likely to make the wrong impression. The premise of Corno and Xu's article is that "homework is the quintessential job of childhood"—as though children need a job.

Which begs the question: Is our job as educators to produce learners or workers? No philosophy is more firmly rooted in education than behaviorism. The idea that behavior can be controlled by rewards and punishment is so embedded in the day-to-day practices of school, one rarely even notices it Kohn, Discipline, grades, attendance policies, honor rolls, and even the way teachers use praise and disapproval—all reflect this philosophy that behavior can be controlled by external stimuli.

So it's no surprise that teachers believe rewards and punishments are the way to make students do homework. When punishments don't work, teachers often increase the punishment, as if more of the same will accomplish the goal. If we believe that good students do their homework and lazy students don't, then it becomes morally defensible to give failing grades for incomplete homework, thereby punishing the vice of laziness and rewarding the virtue of hard work.

Behaviorism is most evident in the use of late policies and zeros for uncompleted homework more about that in Chapter 4. The moralistic, puritanistic, and behavioristic foundations are so firmly entrenched in homework culture, traditional homework practices may be accepted without question by both teachers and parents, as if a sort of brainwashing has occurred. To use a s metaphor, "if you drank the Kool-Aid," you may not realize how the cult affects your attitudes about homework.

Homework beliefs and their historical influences affect the debate today in insidious ways. The arguments today are strongly reminiscent of the earlier arguments for and against homework, yet something is different.

This time around we face new and unique challenges. Never before have we lived with the specter of No Child Left Behind and the accountability it demands. The pressure to meet standards has never been more intense, and homework is seen as a tool for meeting those standards.

The pressure has changed education even at the kindergarten and 1st grade levels. A Newsweek cover story called it the "new first grade": In the last decade, the earliest years of schooling have become less like a trip to "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood" and more like SAT prep. Thirty years ago first grade was for learning how to read.

Now, reading lessons start in kindergarten and kids who don't crack the code by the middle of the first grade get extra help. Many parents complain that homework is now routinely assigned in kindergarten and 1st grade. YouTube hosts a now famous call from a 4-year-old preschooler who needed help with his "takeaway" math homework.

In the desperation to meet standards, even recess has been affected. One survey indicated that only 70 percent of kindergarten classrooms had a recess period Pellegrini, Media and technology have broadened the homework debate to be more inclusive than in the past; more people are participating in the conversation.

The Internet has given the public more information, served as a forum for many pro-homework and anti-homework blogs, and given us a window to similar debates in other countries. Today the homework debate is played out on iVillage and other parenting Web sites, as well as on radio and television and in the print media.

Web sites such as www. Technology has reduced the isolation of parents; their private homework struggles can now be vented in public with the click of a mouse. Just as years ago the Ladies' Home Journal writings sparked a movement, over the last decade the media have been a friend of homework reform. Since the release of Cooper's comprehensive study, major news magazines and talk shows have conducted a national dialogue about homework and have brought increased attention to the anti-homework movement.

With a seemingly endless supply of television talk shows, quasi-news shows such as Dateline , and round-the-clock cable news coverage, issues affecting families—including homework—have received more coverage. The availability of online media has allowed us to access that homework story on Today or that homework article in the New York Times long after publication, and without leaving our homes.

Media and technology have helped to accelerate the growth of the anti-homework movement. But the media has also been an enemy of the anti-homework movement. Every year, around back-to-school time, the media buries us with books, magazine articles, and television segments that reinforce a blind acceptance of homework as a good thing, endorsing the importance of homework and offering parents the same stale tips for getting children to do homework "without tears.

All this press fuels a mass hysteria among parents about their child's ability to compete and to be successful. An American Academy of Pediatrics report labeled the trend "the professionalization of parenthood": Parents receive messages from a variety of sources stating that good parents actively build every skill and aptitude their child might need from the earliest ages. The new mass hysteria has parents driven by fear. It's a dog-eat-dog world, and the competition is tough.

If you're not careful, you won't survive. It's a high-stakes game, with your child's future on the line. For many parents, the mantra has become "do whatever it takes" to get their child accepted at the best college—all of this with a tacit acceptance of the premise that admission into Harvard equals a high-paying career, which equals happiness.

As one high school student put it:

Working as hard as adults

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Homework, or a homework assignment, is a set of tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside the homework assignments may include required reading, a writing or typing project, mathematical exercises to be completed, information to be reviewed before a test, or other skills to be practiced.. The effect of homework is debated.

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WebMath is designed to help you solve your math problems. Composed of forms to fill-in and then returns analysis of a problem and, when possible, provides a step-by-step solution. Covers arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus and statistics. Anxiety, worry, and stress are all a part of most people’s everyday lives. But simply experiencing anxiety or stress in and of itself does not mean you need to get professional help or that you.