Specifically, practices that do not fit well with Greek culture or are in contrast to employee regulations show a low level of transfer.
On the other hand, our interviews revealed that significant cultural changes are underway and that the institutional environment is gradually getting more relaxed, leaving more room to manoeuvre for MNCs. January - Our research not only addresses the strategic purposes of expatriate assignments within multinational corporations but, unlike most earlier studies, extends the investigation to include their path-dependent outcomes. These purpose categories are then conceptually related in terms of a four-part typological matrix based on individual-level knowledge flow direction and role focus.
Following a review of prior assignment purpose studies we posit that strategic expatriate assignment purposes should be considered not in isolation but relative to their potential outcomes. Adopting a single case research design with multi-method data collection we demonstrate the emergent nature of strategic assignment outcomes. It is shown for our transnational case organization that knowledge acquisition or learning by expatriates is an underestimated strategic assignment outcome, more so than either business or organization-related knowledge applications.
Download paper 86 KB - Publication details. January - This article investigates whether the September 11 attacks had an impact on cultural values and the level of cosmopolitanism of US university students. Our results - drawn from two separate quasi-experimental studies - support the two latter hypotheses. In addition, supplementary analyses showed that, after the September 11 attacks, students exhibited a tendency to trade in variety, adventure and challenge for security and stability in their ideal job after graduation.
Implications for management and for cross-cultural management research are discussed. Download paper 52 KB - Publication details. January - With this paper we intend to open up the debate on the influence of language on the way multinational companies MNCs manage.
Subsequently, we define the "language barrier" and elaborate on the causes underlying this barrier. Finally, eight propositions are formulated with regard to the implications of the language barrier for a core aspect of the HQ-subsidiary relationship: December - This article investigates whether Human Resource Management in Greece is maintaining its national character or whether it is converging towards a model that potentially clashes with the country's traditional societal values.
This issue fits in the wider convergence-divergence debate that has been the concern of many cross-cultural researchers. Using data collected from Greek firms and subsidiaries of multinationals located in Greece, we compare the two groups on specific HRM practices. Our empirical results indicate that HR practices in Greek firms reflect national culture to a great extent. Moreover, they imply that in some areas MNC subsidiaries have realised a considerable degree of adaptation, embracing practices that are in line with the Greek cultural environment.
Download paper 88 KB - Publication details. June - This conceptual paper examines the role of country-of-origin effects in MNCs. It deals with definitional problems and discusses both the sources of the country-of-origin effect, and the mechanisms through which it manifests itself.
The strength of the country-of-origin effect is hypothesized to be moderated by factors related to both the home country and the MNC. January - In order to be able to advance scientific knowledge, researchers should consciously explore and critically evaluate alternative explanations of the phenomena under investigation.
We feel that research in the area of entry mode choice has neglected these recommendations where it concerns the impact of cultural distance CD on entry mode choice. In this article, we argue that sample idiosyncrasies, coupled with an almost blind confidence in one specific measurement of CD, have led researchers in this field to systematically overestimate the role of CD in entry mode decisions.
August - With this paper we intend to open up the debate on the influence of language on the way multinational organizations manage. Using sociolinguistic theories we define the "Language Barrier" and advance a series of propositions that propose an agenda for future empirical research in this area. We conclude by identifying the drivers underpinning the language barrier and use these to propose an approach for the future operationalization of the language barrier construct.
Download paper 75 KB - Publication details. June - The importance of language management in multinational companies has never been greater than today. Multinationals are becoming ever more conscious of the importance of global co-ordination as a source of competitive advantage, and language remains the ultimate barrier to aspirations of international harmonization.
In this article, we will review the solutions open to multinational companies in terms of language management. Before doing so, however, we will discuss the aforementioned trend to globalisation, outline the dimensions of the language barrier and illustrate its consequences.
March - This article investigates whether the language of the questionnaire influences response patterns. More specifically we test the cultural accommodation hypothesis: Do respondents subconsciously adjust their responses in a way that reflects the cultural values associated with the language in question?
We tested this hypothesis with a sample of undergraduate students in seven countries. Three type of questions were included in the questionnaire: Cultural accommodation would be present when the mean scores for students who responded to the English-language questionnaire were closer to the mean scores of a control group of English students than to the mean scores of their fellow students who responded to the native language questionnaire.
This was shown to be the case for a substantial number of the cultural values and job characteristic questions but not for the elective questions. Consequences and recommendations for cross-cultural research are discussed. Download paper 81 KB - Publication details. November - The aim of this article is to get a clearer picture of why multinational companies MNCs send out expatriates. We identify three organisational functions of international transfers: Based on an empirical study with results from subsidiaries of MNCs from 9 different home countries, located in 22 different host countries, we show that the importance that is attached to these functions differs between subsidiaries in MNCs from different home countries, between subsidiaries in different host regions and in addition varies with the level of cultural difference.
We argue that these differences might have important consequences for expatriate management. Download paper 71 KB - Publication details. We also compare these countries to the US and Japan and assess to what extent conver-gence has taken place.
For a more detailed discussion of the convergence versus divergence debate on a world-wide and European scale see Harzing and Sorge. We argue that the generalization of results of studies of individual European countries to a wider European pattern is inappropriate even for multinational companies.
European MNCs cannot be seen as a homogeneous group and due attention should be paid to the representation of European MNCs from different countries in any research design. Download paper 89 KB - Publication details. October - We examine the importance of societal embeddedness and universal contingencies in the organizational practices at the international level of multinational enterprises, based on a study comparing European Finnish, French, German, Dutch, Swiss, Swedish, British , American and Japanese multinational enterprises.
Although multinationals are highly internationalized by definition, our study shows their organizational control practices at the international level to be more than anything else explained by their country of origin. Universal contingencies such as size and industry are on the other hand more related to internationalization strategy. Internationalization strategy and organizational control are associated with different sets of variables; to this extent they appear more de-coupled with regard to each other than the literature suggests.
Multinationals appear to follow tracks of co-ordination and control in which they have become embedded in their country-of-origin. Nationally specific institutions and culture have to be interpreted as particularistic but universally practicable facilitators of internationally competing organizational practices. July - This study investigates executive staffing practices in foreign subsidiaries of MNCs.
Firmly grounded in a literature review of the reasons for employing either PCNs parent country nationals or HCNs host country nationals in top management positions in foreign subsidiaries, a number of factors influencing the choice between these alternatives is identified. Using a combination of an archival and mail survey research method, the influence of each of these factors is empirically tested with a sample of nearly observations. May - This article investigates the role of expatriate managers in multinational companies.
We discuss three key organisational functions of expatriation: In the last function, international transfers are used as an informal co-ordination and control strategy.
The article explores this role of international transfers in detail and also refers to a direct way in which expatriates can control subsidiaries. A large-scale mail survey offers empirical evidence for the role that expatriates play in controlling foreign subsidiaries and shows under which circumstances the different types of control are most important.
May - This paper adds an important explanatory variable to the well-established list of factors shown to influence the choice between foreign acquisitions and greenfield investments: The MNC's international strategy is subsequently linked to the management of the two different entry modes by showing that differences in strategy are reflected in different headquarters-subsidiary relationships for acquisitions and greenfields.
Some aspects of this relationship are also shown to change over time, a process that is mediated by the MNC's strategy. Using a citation network of 60 references on expatriate failure rates as a case study, I show that all of these guidelines are violated in published research. Inappropriate referencing can lead to self-perpetuating myths as it has done in the area of expatriate failure rates where the firmly entrenched myth of high expatriate failure rates is shown not be substantiated by any empirical evidence.
The implications of this for both academics and practitioners are discussed. It appears that inappropriate referencing might actually be undermining our academic credibility. June - This article describes the results of a cross-national industrial mail survey in 22 countries.
Response rates are shown to vary considerably across countries and several explanations for these differences in response rates are put forward and tested.
Our results show that, when compared to non-respondents, respondents are geographically and culturally closer to the Netherlands the country from which the questionnaires were sent , are more internationally oriented, work in smaller subsidiaries and in companies not listed on the Global Fortune and come from countries with a lower level of power distance. In addition, there is some indication that English language capacity might be a factor influencing response rates as well.
Based on these results, various recommendations for improving response rates in cross-national mail surveys are put forward. A threefold typology of multinational companies: This typology is tested using data from subsidiaries of 37 MNCs, headquartered in nine different countries. Subsidiaries in the three types of MNCs are shown to differ significantly on aspects of interdependence, local responsiveness, control mechanisms and expatriate presence.
December - Researchers embarking on their first international mail survey find very little guidance in the present academic literature. In , two articles were published in the fall number of JIBS that claimed that: Unfortunately, not much has changed since.
Still, very little is known about how respondents from different countries react to mail surveys. This article intends to fill part of this gap by describing the results of a large scale international mail survey in 22 countries.
Response rates are shown to vary considerably across countries in a way that contradicts much of the earlier American research on this subject.
Several explanations for these differences in response rates are put forward. Download paper 56 KB - Publication details. June - This research note draws the attention to the harmful consequence of a serious lack of empirical research in the field of International Human Resource Management: The apparent myth of high expatriate failure rates is shortly discussed.
To prevent another myth from appearing, this time in the field of staffing policies, this research note provides an empirical test of the framework proposed by Meredith Downes for making decisions about staffing foreign subsidiaries.
The propositions set forward by Downes are tested using a database of nearly subsidiaries located in twenty-two different countries. Headquarters of these subsidiaries are located in nine different countries and operate in eight different industries. Although the variables suggested by Downes have a fair explanatory power, some of the specific propositions had to be rejected. May - This paper provides a critical analysis of research and notably of quotations in the field of expatriate failure rates.
Over the last three decades it has become almost "traditional" to open an article on expatriate management by stating that expatriate failure rates are very high. In this paper it is argued that there is almost no empirical foundation for the existence of high failure rates when measured as premature re-entry. The persistent myth of high expatriate failure rates seems to have been created by massive mis quotations of three articles. Only one of these articles contained solid empirical evidence on expatriate failure rates and in fact showed them to be rather low.
Page last modified on Wed 29 Aug In addition to her academic duties, she also maintains the Journal Quality List and is the driving force behind the popular Publish or Perish software program.
For more of Anne-Wil's publications, see: White papers Publications by type complete list of all my publications by type Publications by year all publications by year Ten career-best publications the ones I consider most significant Harzing.
A historical case study of a global pharmaceutical corporation in China Download paper KB - Publication details August - Intensified competition means that multinational enterprises MNEs are increasingly concerned with locating innovation activities in the most appropriate locations.
Ethnic Identity Self-verification in Interactions between Local Subsidiary Employees and Ethnically Similar Expatriates Download paper KB - Publication details February - Multinational corporations often assign expatriates who share an ethnicity with host country employees termed ethnically similar expatriates to work on international assignments. Language in International Business: A Review and Agenda for Future Research Download paper 1 MB - Publication details May - A fast growing number of studies demonstrates that language diversity influences almost all management decisions in modern multinational corporations.
Evidence from interactions with ethnically similar expatriates Download paper KB - Publication details May - Employing expatriates who share an ethnicity with host country employees HCEs is a widespread expatriate selection strategy. The benefits of being understood: Is the Phoenix getting wings?
Download paper KB - Publication details November - In this article, we compare publication and citation coverage of the new Microsoft Academic with all other major sources for bibliometric data: Why replication studies are essential: Download paper KB - Publication details June - In comparison to the many dozens of articles reviewing and comparing coverage of the Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar, the bibliometric research community has paid very little attention to Microsoft Academic Search MAS.
From dilemmatic struggle to legitimized indifference: What, who or where? A longitudinal and cross-disciplinary comparison Download paper 2. Might contain multiple personalities. Of journal editors and editorial boards: Who are the trailblazers in increasing editorial board gender equality? Do we need to distance ourselves from the distance concept? Why home and host country context might matter more than cultural distance Download paper KB - Publisher's version free access!
Cross-cultural management and language studies within international business research: Past and present paradigms and suggestions for future research Download paper KB - Publication details January - Our contribution seeks to 1 outline how cross-cultural management and, more recently, language studies developed as two interrelated subareas within international business research; 2 discuss the changing paradigms and orthodoxies under which empirical research in cross-cultural management and language studies has been executed, focusing in particular on what we consider shortcomings in past and present research; and 3 formulate our suggestions how research should develop in the future.
Why and how does shared language affect subsidiary knowledge inflows? A social identity perspective Download paper KB - Publisher's version free access! The bridging role of expatriates and inpatriates in knowledge transfer in multinational corporations Download paper KB - Publisher's version free access!
The competitive advantage of nations: The impact of language barriers on trust formation in multinational teams Download paper KB - Publisher's version free access! Hablas vielleicht un peu la mia language? A comprehensive overview of the role of language differences in headquarters-subsidiary communication Download paper KB - Publication details June - The management of human resources in headquarters HQ -subsidiary relationships requires intensive communication, but effective communication often depends on having a shared language.
A longitudinal study of Google Scholar coverage between and Download paper KB - Publication details February - Harzing showed that between April and January , Google Scholar has very significantly expanded its coverage in Chemistry and Physics, with a more modest expansion for Medicine and a natural increase in citations only for Economics. A longitudinal study of Nobel Prize winners Download paper KB - Publication details May - Most governmental research assessment exercises do not use citation data for the Social Sciences and Humanities as Web of Science or Scopus coverage in these disciplines is considered to be insufficient.
Misunderstanding the Social Sciences? Language competencies, policies and practices in multinational corporations: Challenges in International Survey Research: A review with illustrations and suggested solutions for best practice Download paper KB - Publication details - Publisher's version free access!
Explaining geographic diversity of editorial boards: The geographic diversity of editorial boards Download paper KB - Publication details July - With the increasing globalisation of knowledge and management education, it is important that we build on our scanty understanding of trends and levels of geographic diversification in editorial board membership of management journals. Response style differences in cross-national research: Why do international assignees stay?
A study of language and leadership across 17 countries Download paper KB - Publication details February - With multinational corporations increasingly adopting English as a corporate language, the issue of language management and the pros and cons of language standardization have been widely debated in the literature. Japanese Human Resource Management: The language barrier and its solutions in the HQ-subsidiary relationship Download paper 99 KB - Publication details November - Using interview data in eight German and Japanese corporate HQs and their subsidiaries in Japan or Germany, we provide the first large-scale empirical analysis of the language barrier and its solutions.
Cultural Accommodation and Language Priming. Inpatriates as Agents of Cross-Unit Knowledge Flows in Multinational Corporations Download paper 98 KB - Publication details August - In the past couple of decades, multinational corporations MNCs have increasingly used international assignments as a key staffing mechanism to disperse knowledge resources across different organizational units.
Descending from the ivory tower: Reflections on the relevance and future of country-of-origin research Download paper 66 KB - Publication details August - In a provocative article in this journal, Jean-Claude Usunier summarises the critique on country of origin COO research and proclaims it to be ivory tower research that is of little relevance for consumers and businesses.
The Impact of Culture on Interactions: Five Lessons Learned from the European Commission Download paper KB - Publication details May - Using data collected from 25 interviews with Austrian employees in the European Commission, we explore the conditions under which cultural differences do and do not influence interactions.
First, as knowledge brokers, assignees create inter-unit intellectual capital by linking their home- and host-unit social capital, thereby enabling cross-unit access to previously unconnected knowledge resources. On Becoming a High Impact Journal in International Business and Management Download paper KB - Publication details January - It should be the aim of any academic journal — or academic researcher for that matter — to make an impact.
Arbitrary Decisions in Ranking Studies: Standardization towards Headquarters Practices, Standardization towards Global Best Practices and Localization Download paper KB - Publication details December - One of the most complex challenges that multinational corporations MNCs face is harmonizing the opposing forces of standardization versus localization.
Google Scholar as a new source for citation analysis? Ranking Journals in Business and Management: Balancing Global and Local Strategic Contexts: The Language Barrier and its Implications for HQ-Subsidiary Relationships Download paper KB - Publication details January - With this paper we intend to open up the debate on the influence of language on the way multinational companies MNCs manage their subsidiary operations. Country-of-origin, localization or dominance effect?
Download paper KB - Publication details January - This paper contributes to two recurring and very central debates in the international management literature: How European is Management in Europe? Has the country-of-origin effect disappeared?
Download paper KB - Publication details September - This chapter attempts to provide a comparison of country-of-origin effects for a very wide range of aspects of the HQ-subsidiary relationship and for two time periods: The effect of corporate-level organisational factors on the transfer of human resource management practices: European and US MNCs and their Greek subsidiaries Download paper KB - Publication details July - One of the central questions in the literature on multinational companies MNCs is the extent to which MNC subsidiaries act and behave as local firms local isomorphism versus the extent to which their practices resemble those of the parent company or some other global standard internal consistency.
A Country Study Download paper 97 KB - Publication details May - Studies of attitudes across countries generally rely on a comparison of aggregated mean scores to Likert-scale questions. Geographical Distance and the Role and Management of Subsidiaries: High Volume, Low Impact? Time to abandon the concept? Download paper 50 KB - Publication details June - In this article, we review the established understanding of the concept of expatriate failure, discuss its associated problems and present a more sophisticated and comprehensive understanding of the concept.
The use of English questionnaires in cross-national research Download paper 74 KB - Publication details April - Cross-national research is plagued by many obstacles. A knowledge transfer perspective of strategic assignment purposes and their path-dependent outcomes Download paper KB - Publication details January - Our research not only addresses the strategic purposes of expatriate assignments within multinational corporations but, unlike most earlier studies, extends the investigation to include their path-dependent outcomes.
Two quasi-experiments on the influence of threats on cultural values and cosmopolitanism Download paper 86 KB - Publication details January - This article investigates whether the September 11 attacks had an impact on cultural values and the level of cosmopolitanism of US university students. Download paper KB - Publication details December - This article investigates whether Human Resource Management in Greece is maintaining its national character or whether it is converging towards a model that potentially clashes with the country's traditional societal values.
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