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Basic Concepts & Terms of Sociology

Dr. C. Michael Botterweck

❶Theoretical framework which argues that gender inequality is rooted in the system of patriarchy itself and seeks to overthrow patriarchy and gender role in order to bring about gender equality. Specifically, studies have focused on why men choose to become fathers and the relationship between fatherhood and contemporary masculinity.

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An analysis of the everyday norms often taken for granted by individuals; involves breaking everyday norms in order to understand their significance. Roles that involve taking care of personal relationships; usually taught to women; nurturing, emotionally attentive, passive, etc. Parts of different identities that we get attached to and feel that we must defend. The organization of marriage and blood ties that function to regularize sex and mating, providing for biological and social support, socialization of the young, and initial placement of young in social structures.

Tends to occur when the group overregulates the behaviors of individuals. The increasing number of women and children falling below the poverty line. Our entire face that we present to others; the method through which we cue others to the self and identity that we claim.

The legal system negotiates relationships between social actors; it integrates different social actors. The extract raw resources from the environment, convert them into usable goods, and transport those goods and services to the society. The social identity that is socially constructed around biological sex.

A linguistic style that reflects the differences between how men and women communicate. All of the roles in society that are not represented by our significant others but play an important role in socialization and the internalization of society.

The social structure that prevents women from advancing past a certain level in corporations and government; an effect of institutionalized sexism. The set of structures that function to explicitly direct the activities of the system in animals, the mind; in society, government [also called polity].

Condition that occurs when poor decisions are made on behalf of an organization despite opposition. Beliefs, values, and attitudes that tend to support the status quo or social movements designed to change it. The amount of money one makes, generally measured on a yearly basis. Differential treatment that is so embedded in the everyday workings of social life that it is not easily recognized as discrimination and does not require conscious prejudice or overt discrimination example: Roles that involve performance tasks; usually are taught to boys; goal oriented, leadership, decision making, disciplinarian, unemotional, etc.

A form of interaction where individuals perform acts to show reverence to one another which involves a mutually shared meaning. The argument that once a bureaucracy is in place it is impossible to remove; the irrationalities of bureaucracy: Argues that the deviant labels given to people are a major cause of deviant behavior and identity. The set of structures that serve to replicate patterns in a system with the least possible effort in the body, the central nervous system; in society, religion and education.

Stories that provide a moral basis for human behavior stories that make it okay to do what we do. Theoretical framework that says that the cause of gender inequality is gender socialization and seeks to bring about equality through legal reform. Seeing our self through the evaluations of others; we experience pride or shame as a result of the evaluations of others; the way our self esteem is formed. Factories located along the Mexican-U. The social position through which an individual sees their entire life; it rules their interpretation of everything that happens to them.

A system of stratification where the majority of economic activities rely on the system of slavery. Suggests that modern societies are increasingly standardized, predictable, uniform, and bland. A society that has a weak collective consciousness but strong interdependency among the social units.

Defining behavior as the result of a medical condition allowing for medical intervention and treatment; a means of social control as when homosexuality was defined as an illness. Subordinate women by segregating them from the rest of society when they have their cycle. An historical era in which urbanization and industrialization play key roles. Where nations are controlled economically rather than politically or militarily.

Formal organization that individuals join in order to promote an important social cause. Prescribed ways of behaving that have sanctions attached to them example: Originated in the American South and was eventually adopted by the entire nation.

Culture or way of life where norms, values, and beliefs are in opposition to mainstream culture; in many oppositional cultures, acts of deviance are rewarded. A system of stratification where men are given more power and prestige than women. Low income nations that are dependent on wealthier nations for foreign aid and investment. Consistent patterns of behavior that a person or individual exhibits. An historical period in which mass media and advertising play key roles. The ability of one actor to influence the behavior of another in a social organization.

Groups of ruling people who tend to have power in different kinds of institutional spheres. Emphasis in scientific management that reduced the amount of worker innovation and pressed workers to perform the same steps in the same way. Positive or negative cultural attitude that is directed toward members of a group or social category; combines beliefs and value judgments with positive or negative emotions.

In labeling theory, deviant behavior that is not noticed and labeled as deviant; most of us exhibit primary deviance. Groups that tend to be small in number, last long periods of time, be non-goal directed, and tend to create intimate self-revealing social relations.

Inheritance ritual where property of the estate is passed down to the oldest male in the family. An ideology that justifies wealth and poverty. The practice of keeping men from seeing women.

A category or group of people having hereditary traits that set them apart. Prejudice and discrimination based on race; any action or characteristic of a social system that supports race privilege. Theoretical framework which argues that gender inequality is rooted in the system of patriarchy itself and seeks to overthrow patriarchy and gender role in order to bring about gender equality.

Based on rules laws and regulations. Organizational emphasis on efficiency, predictability, calculability, and nonhuman technologies that control people.

This occurs when people live in areas where there is a higher concentration of a certain race or ethnic group. A condition where individuals in groups make decisions that tend to be more risky than they would if they were taking action on their own. A set of actions or behaviors performed ceremoniously and have symbolic meaning.

Role conflict occurs when the demands of one role clash with the demands of another. Placing your self in the role of another in order to see yourself from that perspective. Like in a movie, roles are scripts for behavior, but unlike a movie, social roles are ambiguous and negotiable; roles are generally attached to status positions. Reactions to behaviors that are designed to encourage positive sanctions or discourage negative sanctions the behavior; social sanctions are a necessary part of social control.

Those who are less fortunate in society take out their frustration on others who are disadvantaged as well and blame them as the cause of the social problems. Occurs when certain racial or ethnic groups are blamed as the cause of social problems such as joblessness and high crime.

Knowledge system based on beliefs in the empirical world and laboratory research. The work that gets done at home after working outside of the home in a full-time job. Groups that tend to last shorter periods of time, tend to be goal directed, and tend toward superficial relationships. Where individuals believe, either consciously or subconsciously, in the labels that are ascribed to them.

Middle-income nations that are undergoing the process of modernization and who often exploit the poorer nations as well. Socially agreed-upon biological criteria; in the US, the criteria is generally seen as only allowing two possibilities male, female , but biologically it is more true that there are at least five male, female, true hermaphrodites, male pseudohermaphrodi.

The process where individuals define what is real through their repeated interactions and negotiations. According to Turner, [3] this was a device to regulate the behavior of women, and the attack on women as witches was principally 'a critique of their sexuality'. Women were seen to be irrational, emotional and lacking in self-restraint; they were especially vulnerable to satanic temptation. Turner argues that attempts to regulate female sexuality through religious discourse have, in the case of Western Europe, to be understood in the context of concerns about managing private property and ensuring its continuity.

Thus, for the land-owning aristocracy, the point of marriage was to produce a male heir to the property of the household. Since child mortality was common, women had to be more or less continuously pregnant during their marriage to guarantee a living male heir. Furthermore, this heir had to be legitimate, if disputes over inheritance were to be avoided. This legitimacy could only be ensured by the heads of households marrying virgins and ensuring the chastity of their wives for the duration of the marriage.

Equally,daughters had to be sexually pure if they were to be eligible for marriage to other property-holding families. Such marriages were prompted solely by the need to produce children and had none of the elements of eroticism and sexual compatibility of contemporary marriages.

In pre-modern Europe, these interests were reflected in the character of marriages. They were private, arranged contracts that could be easily dissolved in the event of child production being compromised by the woman's infertility or infidelity.

With the entry of the Church into marriage arrangements, different definitions of marriage emerged. Lifelong marriages were demanded,but with a concern to regulate sexuality, particularly the sexuality of women.

In the year , Judeo-Christian belief system marriage is modeled after Adam and Eve 's lifetime commitment between man and woman. The married couple produces children, constituting the nuclear family. Some sociologists now dispute the degree to which this idealized arrangement has and does reflect the true structure of families in American society.

In her article The American Family and the Nostalgia Trap , sociologist Stephanie Coontz first posited that the American family has always been defined first and foremost by its economic needs. For instance, in colonial times families often relied on slaves or indentured servants to support themselves economically. The modern "breadwinner- homemaker model", argues Coontz, then has little historical basis.

Only in the s did the myth of the happy, nuclear family as the correct family structuration arise. Grandparents are also doing their bit. To paraphrase the quote, family structure is changing drastically and there is a vast variety of different family structures. Yet Coontz argues in Marriage, A History that during the 20th century, marriages have become increasingly unstable in the United States as individuals have begun to seek unions for the ideals of love and affection rather than social or economic expediency.

Sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild argues in The Second Shift that despite changes in perceptions of the purpose of marriage and the economic foundations for marriage, women continue to do the bulk of care work to the detriment of the American family. Hochschild illustrates the ways in which an unequal division of the second shift undermines family welfare by reducing marital equality and spousal satisfaction.

Families and marriage have increasingly become areas where gender matters. However, it is important to note that gender differences in marriage have too often been perceived as merely an "individual struggle and depoliticized by reducing social inequalities to differences". There are many theoretical models to describe how people determine who to marry.

An important gender-focused approach is an intersectional approach that combines education level and gender. Men and women operate in a "marriage market" that is influenced by many competing factors. One of the most decisive factors is education level. Studies have shown that men and women tend to marry partners that have attained a level of education similar to their own. In the study by Bruze, Svarer, and Weiss, low education is defined as a high school education or less, medium education is defined as vocational education, and high education is defined as a college education Consequently, individuals "are selected into and out of the marriage market on the basis of their education".

The driving force behind this process is that a marriage in which both partners or only the husband have low education end with divorce at a substantially higher rate than marriages where both partners or the husband do not have low education.

Young women with medium education levels tend to have the highest rates of marriage. Highly educated men tend to marry highly educated women. Moreover, men and women who have attained high levels of education delay marriage past the age when other individuals typically marry. This trend becomes stronger with age: Another important intersectional factor to consider in relation to gender and marriage is marriage markets. Analyzing marriage markets as they pertain to marriage has several benefits.

First, marriage market conditions are forces that influence marriage from outside they subjects affect, which means they impact the general trends of marriage decisions. In addition, Job stability benefits both employeers through greater productivity and families though more cohesion.

Second, marriage market conditions may capture many economic influences. In weak marriage markets when there is high unemployment couples who would like to get married may delay doing so due to unemployment or financial troubles. Furthermore, even couples that are already married may face doubts about the future economic status of themselves or their partners, which can create marital instability. Conversely, strong labor markets when unemployment is low may improve the employment situation and financial situation of either partner, which may facilitate marriage and increase economic stability.

Social class interacts with gender to impact the male-female dynamic in marriage, particularly with respect to "temporal flexibility at work and home". Conversely, men and women who do not have access to such flexibility and control of their time are pressured to weaken conventional gender expectations regarding marriage, family, and jobs. Gertsel and Clawson conducted a study in which they collected data from four groups of paid care workers, divided by class and gender The nurses were almost exclusively women and the doctors were almost exclusively men.

This group had a number of choices about work hours and their ability to utilize family-friendly workplace policies. The class-disadvantaged group had fewer choices regarding their work hours and faced greater constraints in flexibility and control of their time. Women in particular need flexible work hours in order to meet the inflexible demands that marriage and a family place upon them, as traditional gender expectations stipulate that the woman be the primary caregiver.

Furthermore, gender shapes the particular variety of flexibility demanded. In advantaged occupations, both men and women are able to acquire the flexibility they so desire. However, they choose to use the control that this affords them in different manners. Women cut back on paid work hours and take leaves to handle domestic labor and child-care. In other words, they make job sacrifices.

On the other hand, men are less likely to utilize family-friendly policies to make work sacrifices; they spend less at home and more time working.

In essence, both men and women of class-advantaged occupations use the flexibility that their status provides them to "enact neotraditional gender expectations". Class-disadvantaged men and women do not have the same temporal flexibility that allows them to make decisions on how to allocate their time. They face stricter constraints on their work hours and policies, thus making it impossible for them to choose whether to spend more time at work or more time at home.

For example, even if a class-disadvantaged woman wanted to spend less time at work and more time with her children or in the home, she might not be able due to the inability to get time off from work or take a leave of absence. Thus, class-disadvantage makes it more difficult for both men and women to adhere to traditional gender expectations.

The researchers showed that class advantage is used to "do gender" in traditional ways, while class disadvantage may lead to a violation of traditional gender expectations in a way that "undoes gender". Research indicates that three principal factors predict how well men and women perceive their work-life balance in marriage: As demonstrated by Gertsel and Clawson, higher-level occupations are generally more accommodating to family life than are lower level occupations Keene and Quadagno found a greater likelihood of perceived imbalance when work duties caused men or women to miss a family event or make it difficult to maintain their home Additional research by Keene and Quadagno suggests that the gender expectations that men should prioritize their work lives and women should prioritize their marriage and home life no longer exist.

One theoretical approach to explain this concept is the "gender similarity" approach, which "predicts that the convergence in men's and women's work and family demands should lead to a convergence in attitudes toward work and family responsibilities and feelings of work-family balance".

Some research supports the convergence of men's and women's work experiences: However, the analysis from the abovementioned study supports the gender differences model.

Gender differences exist in the division of household labor and chores, with men working more hours and women spending more time on domestic and child-care responsibilities. The divorce rate in western countries has generally increased over time.

Divorce rates have however started to decrease over the last twenty years. In the USA, divorce rate changed from l. Many scholars have attempted to explain why humans enter relationships, stay in relationships and end relationships.

Levinger's , theory on divorce is based on a theoretical tradition consisting of three basic components: All the things that can be seen as gains from the relationship such as love, sex, companionship, emotional support and daily assistance are the rewards of the relationship.

The costs would the negative aspects of the relationship such as domestic violence , infidelity, quarrels and limitations on personal freedom. Generally people tend to stay in high rewards and low cost relationships. However, the reverse situation, that is, a costly marriage with few benefits does not automatically lead to divorce.

Couples must overcome barriers such as religious beliefs, social stigma, and financial dependence or law restrictions before they successfully dissolve their marriage. Another theory to explain why relationships end is the "Mate ejection theory", by Brian Boutwell, J. According to this theory there are gender differences in the process of ejection.

For example, a woman will be more upset when her husband emotionally cheats on her and a man will be more upset when his wife physically cheats on him. The reason for this stems from evolutionary roots, a man emotionally cheating on his wife equates to a loss or reduction in resources for the wife to raise the children whereas an act of physical infidelity by the wife threatens the husband's chance to pass on his genes to the next generation via reproduction.

Both these circumstances call for mate ejection. Three longitudinal studies on divorce: The Marin County Project the clinical study of 60 families that began in , The Virginia County Study a series of longitudinal studies on marriage, divorce and remarriage and The Binuclear Family Studies of 98 families have helped expand the literature on divorce.

Judith Wallerstein , an influential psychologist's research on the effect of divorce based on the Marin County Project , on children suggests that, "children with divorced parents often reach adulthood as psychologically troubled individuals who find it difficult to maintain satisfying relationships with others".

A lot of quantitative research done by other scholars agrees with Wallerstein's conclusion. It has been shown that the children with divorced parents have an increased risk of: Wallerstein, however, has a disputed 'extreme version' of her theory where she claims that the difference between the children with divorced and continuously married parents is dramatic and pervasive. One such opponent of Wallerstein's extreme theory is Mavis Hetherington who argues that the negative effects of divorce on children have been exaggerated and that most children grow up without long-term harm.

Twenty years after the 98 families from the binuclear study were interviewed; the offspring from these families were interviewed. Mothering is the social practice of nurturing and caring for dependent children. It is a dynamic process of social interactions and relationships. Mothering is typically associated with women since it is typically women who mother their children. However, "not all women mother, and mothering as nurturing and caring work is not inevitable the exclusive domain of women".

The roles associated with motherhood are variable across time and culture. The universalist approach to motherhood is aimed at conceptualizing the work that mothers do. This approach identifies mothers through what they do, rather than how they feel. Mothers share a set of activities known as "maternal practice", that are universal, even though they vary as individuals and across cultures.

These activities include nurturing, protecting, and training their children. An individual's mothering actions are shaped by their beliefs about family, individuality, the nature of childhood, and the nature of their child. These are also often shaped by their own childhood and past experiences with children. The dynamic interactions between the mother and child create deep and meaningful connections.

The particularistic approach to mothering suggests that the role of a mother, their activities, and understandings cannot be separated from the context in which they live. According to this theory, mothering takes place within " specific historical contexts framed by interlocking structures of race, class, and gender' [23] Furthermore, a mother's strategies and meanings that she develops are influenced by different social locations, such as the intersections of regional and local political economy with class, ethnicity, culture, and sexual preference.

Motherhood ideology is influenced by the idealization of the family structure and perpetuates the image of a heterosexual couple with children. In this family model the father acts as the economic support and sometimes disciplinarian of the family, while the mother or other female relative oversees most of the child-rearing.

In East Asian and Western traditional families, fathers were the heads of the families, which meant that his duties included providing financial support and making critical decisions, some of which must have been obeyed without question by the rest of the family members. The mother's role in the family is celebrated on Mother's Day.

Anna Reeves Jarvis was a woman who originally organized Mother's Work Day's protesting the lack of cleanliness and sanitation in the work place. This is common in stepmothers. There are many cultural contradictions and diverse arrangements and practices that challenge the intensive mothering ideology.

However, they are considered deviant discourses since they do not conform to the script of full-time motherhood in the context of marriage. These include single mothers, welfare mothers, minority mothers, immigrant mothers, and lesbian mothers.

These types of motherhood categories are not mutually exclusive. In the United States, According to anthropologist Maurice Godelier , a critical novelty in human society, compared to humans' closest biological relatives chimpanzees and bonobos , is the parental role assumed by the males, which were unaware of their "father" connection.

In many cultures, especially traditional western, a father is usually the husband in a married couple. Many times fathers have a very important role in raising offspring and the title can be given to a non-biological father that fills this role.

This is common in stepfathers males married to biological mothers. In East Asian and Western traditional families, fathers are the heads of the families, which means that their duties include providing financial support and making critical decisions, some of which must be obeyed without question by the rest of the family members. As with cultural concepts of family, the specifics of a father's role vary according to cultural folkways.

In what some sociologists term the " bourgeois family", which arose out of typical 16th- and 17th-century European households, the father's role has been somewhat limited. This structure is enforced, for example, in societies which legislate " maternity leave " but do not have a corresponding " paternity leave ". However, this limited role has increasingly been called into question. Since the s, social scientists as well as feminists have increasingly criticized gendered arrangements of work and care, and the male breadwinner role, and policies are increasingly targeting men as fathers, as a tool of changing gender relations.

Described as 'the science of male parenting', the study of 'father craft' emerged principally in Britain and the United States but also throughout Europe in the s.

The words 'ma ma' and 'mom', usually regarded as terms of endearment directed towards a mother figure, are generally one of the first words a child speaks.

While 'da da' or 'dad' often precede it, this does not reflect a stronger bond between the father and child than that of the mother and child, it is merely simpler to pronounce than 'mummy' or 'mum' which require greater control over the mouth muscles. A number of studies have been given to the American public to determine how men view and define fatherhood. Specifically, studies have focused on why men choose to become fathers and the relationship between fatherhood and contemporary masculinity.

Not surprisingly, recent research on fatherhood is framed by identity theory and has focused on the salience, centrality, and importance of the father identity in men's lives, especially as it may be linked to men's involvement with their children. According to identity theory, the more salient and central the identity, the more likely individuals are to engage in behaviors associated with it.

Salience refers to the readiness to act out an identity in a particular situation. Centrality refers to the importance of an identity in relation to other identities. The centrality of the father identity is usually held at a higher level as opposed to brother, husband, etc.

Men who view their role as a father central and crucial to who they are as a person are more likely to engage with their children and strive to participate in responsible fatherhood.

Men who fail to successfully become fathers or are unable to have children view the lack of fatherhood as a threat to their masculinity. As a result, the threat to masculinity serves as a driving force for men to possibly become fathers because they never want to be seen as infertile or effeminate.

Studies on men who choose not to be fathers often focus on how the role of fatherhood is crucial to masculinity and a man's central identity. Many men blame economic difficulties, cultural differences, and life situations as potential factors that deter them from fatherhood.

Economic difficulties, see economic problem , serve as a primary explanation for men to avoid fatherhood. For men, it is difficult to separate occupational success from fatherhood because financially providing for one's family has been central to the identity of being a father in the United States. As a result, a complex relationship is formed between economic struggles and the importance of fatherhood.

Men who are not employed or have low earnings often feel as if they have failed as both fathers and men. On the other hand, men who have a low socioeconomic status find fatherhood very appealing because it gives them a measure of accomplishment denied to them by the occupational world. In terms of the cultural importance of fatherhood, white men and men of color have differing views on fatherhood that can affect how many of these men participate in fatherhood.

Lastly, some men blame life situations as the primary factor for their decision not to pursue fatherhood. Life situations are defined as an individual's relationship status single or married and their age. Studies have shown that men who are older and married tend to be more likely to pursue fatherhood.

It has been proposed that men continue to view marriage , work and fatherhood as a "package deal" [38] meaning that lacking one of these components, like work or marriage, may result in the decision not to have children. It has also been proposed that married men feel as if they are expected to pursue fatherhood as a part of their marriage though they personally may not want to have children.

On the other hand, men who are single and younger do not feel the same desire because they are not "prepared" to emotionally and financially support a child. The number of married couples raising children has decreased over the years.

In Canada, one parent families have become popular since when only 8. The high percentage of mothers becoming the sole parent is sometimes due to the result of a divorce, unplanned pregnancy or the inability to find a befitting partner. Children who are raised by a single parent are commonly at a disadvantage due to the characteristics of parenting. A mother and father both make significant contributions to the development of a child, therefore one parent's ability to raise a child on her or his own may be hindered.

A residence containing an unmarried couple is called cohabitation. However, in various Catholic regions such as Italy, this is uncommon due to the religious aspects See Catholic marriage. Gay and Lesbian couples are categorized as same sex relationships. In , Denmark was the first nation to allow same sex couples to get married and to provide equal rights to all citizens. Children of same-sex couples either come from past relationships or through other opportunities like adoption or artificial insemination.

Census, it was suggested that more than , children in the United States were being raised by lesbian and gay couples. The trend of child-rearing amongst gay and lesbian couples or partnerships is on the rise. Also, the support from the general public for gay and lesbian couples or partnerships to raising children is at its all-time high since the s.

In , Americans were asked a very similar question.


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Principle that people' beliefs and activities should be interpreted in terms of their own culture. Ethnocentrism Tendency to judge other cultures using one's own as a standard. As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students%(4).