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Anatomical terms of motion

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❶Archived from the original on 3 April



Kinesiology is the study of human and nonhuman animal-body movements, performance, and function by applying the sciences of biomechanics , anatomy , physiology , psychology , and neuroscience. Applications of kinesiology in human-health include physical education teacher, rehabilitation, health and safety, health promotion, workplaces, sport and exercise industries. A bachelor's degree in kinesiology can provide strong preparation for graduate study in biomedical research, as well as in professional programs, such as medicine.

Whereas the term "kinesiologist" is neither a licensed nor professional designation in the United States nor most countries with the exception of Canada , individuals with training in this area can teach physical education, provide consulting services, conduct research and develop policies related to rehabilitation, human motor performance, ergonomics , and occupational health and safety. Many doctoral level faculty in North American kinesiology programs received their doctoral training in related disciplines, such as neuroscience, mechanical engineering, psychology, and physiology.

The world's first kinesiology department was launched in at the University of Waterloo , Canada. Adaptation through exercise is a key principle of kinesiology that relates to improved fitness in athletes as well as health and wellness in clinical populations.

Exercise is a simple and established intervention for many movement disorders and musculoskeletal conditions due to the neuroplasticity of the brain [16] and the adaptability of the musculoskeletal system.

There are many different types of exercise interventions that can be applied in kinesiology to athletic, normal, and clinical populations. Aerobic exercise interventions help to improve cardiovascular endurance. As a whole, exercise programs can reduce symptoms of depression [24] and risk of cardiovascular [25] and metabolic diseases. The study of the physiological responses to physical exercise and their therapeutic applications is known as exercise physiology , which is an important area of research within kinesiology.

Neuroplasticity is also a key scientific principle used in kinesiology to describe how movement and changes in the brain are related. The human brain adapts and acquires new motor skills based on this principle, which includes both adaptive and maladaptive brain changes. Recent empirical evidence indicates the significant impact of physical activity on brain function; for example, greater amounts of physical activity are associated with enhanced cognitive function in older adults.

For example, after long-term training, pianists showed greater gray matter density in sensorimotor cortex and white matter integrity in the internal capsule compared to non-musicians. Maladaptive plasticity is defined as neuroplasticity with negative effects or detrimental consequences in behavior. Patients with stroke learned to suppress paretic limb movement after unsuccessful experience in paretic hand use; this may cause decreased neuronal activation at adjacent areas of the infarcted motor cortex.

There are many types of therapies that are designed to overcome maladaptive plasticity in clinic and research, such as constraint-induced movement therapy CIMT , body weight support treadmill training BWSTT and virtual reality therapy. These interventions are shown to enhance motor function in paretic limbs [52] [53] [54] and stimulate cortical reorganization [55] [56] [57] in patients with brain damage.

Motor redundancy is a widely used concept in kinesiology and motor control which states that, for any task the human body can perform, there are effectively an unlimited number of ways the nervous system could achieve that task. The concept of motor redundancy is explored in numerous studies, [59] [60] [61] usually with the goal of describing the relative contribution of a set of motor elements e.

Two distinct but not incompatible theories have emerged for how the nervous system coordinates redundant elements: In the simplification theory, complex movements and muscle actions are constructed from simpler ones, often known as primitives or synergies, resulting in a simpler system for the brain to control.

In Canada, kinesiology is a professional designation as well as an area of study. Kinesiologists work in a variety of roles as health professionals. They work as rehabilitation providers in hospitals, clinics and private settings working with populations needing care for musculoskeletal, cardiac and neurological conditions. They provide rehabilitation to persons injured at work and in vehicular accidents. Kinesiologists also work as functional assessment specialists, exercise therapists, ergonomists, return to work specialists, case managers and medical legal evaluators.

They can be found in hospital, long term care, clinic, work, and community settings. In Canada, Kinesiology has been designated a regulated health profession in Ontario.

The College of Kinesiologists of Ontario achieved proclamation on April 1, , at which time the professional title "Kinesiologist" became protected by law.

In Ontario only members of the college may call themselves a Registered Kinesiologist. Individuals who have earned degrees in kinesiology can work in research, the fitness industry, clinical settings, and in industrial environments.

Royal Central Institute of Gymnastics sv G. It was the first Physiotherapy School in the world, training hundreds of medical gymnasts who spread the Swedish physical therapy around the entire world. It was the foundation of the Medical Gymnastics, the original Physiotherapy and Physical Therapy , developed during years in Sweden starting The Kinesiology consisted of nearly 2, physical movements and 50 different types of massage therapy techniques.

They were all used to affect various dysfunctions and even illnesses, not only in the movement apparatus, but also into the internal physiology of man.

Thus, the original classical and Traditional Kinesiology was not only a system of rehabilitation for the body, or biomechanics like in modern Academic Kinesiology, but also a new therapy for relieving and curing diseases, by affecting the autonomic nervous system, organs and glands in the body. It was written by Nils Posse and published in Boston, Motion capture technology has application in measuring human movement, and thus kinesiology.

Historically, motion capture labs have recorded high fidelity data. Modern-day systems have increased accessibility to mocap technology. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the scientific study of human movement. For the alternative medicine technique, see Applied kinesiology. Neurobiological effects of physical exercise. Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 27 April A Journal of Cerebral Circulation.

Medicine and science in sports and exercise. Sports Medicine, Training and Rehabilitation. The range of motion describes the total range of motion that a joint is able to do. Hyperextension increases the stress on the ligaments of a joint, and is not always because of a voluntary movement. It may be a result of accidents, falls, or other causes of trauma. It may also be used in surgery, such as in temporarily dislocating joints for surgical procedures.

These are general terms that can be used to describe most movements the body makes. Most terms have a clear opposite, and so are treated in pairs. Flexion and extension describe movements that affect the angle between two parts of the body. These terms come from the Latin words with the same meaning. Flexion describes a bending movement that decreases the angle between a segment and its proximal segment. When sitting down, the knees are flexed. When a joint can move forward and backward, such as the neck and trunk, flexion refers to movement in the anterior direction.

Extension is the opposite of flexion, describing a straightening movement that increases the angle between body parts. Extension of the hip or shoulder moves the arm or leg backward. Abduction is the motion of a structure away from the midline while adduction refer to motion towards the center of the body.

English words "duct," "conduct," "induction". Abduction refers to a motion that pulls a structure or part away from the midline of the body. In the case of fingers and toes, it refers to spreading the digits apart, away from the centerline of the hand or foot. Abduction of the wrist is also called radial deviation. Adduction refers to a motion that pulls a structure or part toward the midline of the body, or towards the midline of a limb.

In the case of fingers and toes, it refers to bringing the digits together, towards the centerline of the hand or foot. Adduction of the wrist is also called ulnar deviation. Dropping the arms to the sides, and bringing the knees together, are examples of adduction. The terms elevation and depression refer to movement above and below the horizontal.

They derive from the Latin terms with similar meanings [c]. Elevation refers to movement in a superior direction. Depression refers to movement in an inferior direction, the opposite of elevation. Rotation of body parts is referred to as internal or external, referring to rotation towards or away from the center of the body.

Internal rotation or medial rotation refers to rotation towards the axis of the body. External rotation or lateral rotation refers to rotation away from the center of the body. The lotus position of yoga , demonstrating external rotation of the leg at the hip. The swinging action made during a tennis serve is an example of circumduction. Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion refer to extension or flexion of the foot at the ankle. These terms refer to flexion between the foot and the body's dorsal surface, considered the front of the leg, and flexion between the foot and the body's plantar surface, considered the back of the leg.

Dorsiflexion where the toes are brought closer to the shin. This decreases the angle between the dorsum of the foot and the leg. Plantar flexion or plantarflexion is the movement which decreases the angle between the sole of the foot and the back of the leg; for example, the movement when depressing a car pedal or standing on tiptoes.

A ballerina , demonstrating plantar flexion of the feet. Palmarflexion and dorsiflexion refer to movement of the flexion palmarflexion or extension dorsiflexion of the hand at the wrist.

Palmarflexion refers to decreasing the angle between the palm and the anterior forearm.

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The term kinesiology literally means the study of motion. Given that motion of our body occurs when bones move at joints, and that muscles are the primary creator of the forces that move the bones, kinesiology is the study of the musculoskeletal system.

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kinesiology An alternative healthcare system based on the posit that disease is caused by the accumulation of toxins around major muscle groups, which translates into muscle weakness.

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Basic Terminology Kinesiology = The study of movement This definition is so broad. What other fields of study come together to create kinesiology? Yes!! And it relates them. The term Kinesiology is a literal translation to Greek+English from the original Swedish word Rörelselära, meaning "Movement Science". It was the foundation of the Medical Gymnastics, the original Physiotherapy and Physical Therapy, developed during years in Sweden (starting ).