If the paper was published in an academic journal, include the year in parentheses after the authors' names.
If the paper was unpublished, use the year the paper was written. List the title of the research paper. Use sentence capitalization to write out the full title of the research paper, capitalizing the first word and any proper names. If it has a subtitle, place a colon and capitalize the first word of the subtitle. Red noses, warm hearts: The glowing phenomenon among North Pole reindeer.
Include information on where you found the paper. If the paper was published in an academic journal or magazine, use the same format that you would for any other article.
For unpublished articles, provide as much information as possible to direct your readers to the research paper. Use a parenthetical citation in the body of your paper. When you write a statement that comes from the research paper, include the last names of the authors along with the year the paper was published or written.
Start with the authors' names. Invert the first author's name so that the last name appears first. Subsequent authors' names should be written in regular order. Spell out first names. Use a middle initial if it is provided on the research paper.
The title of the paper is written in title case, meaning that most adjectives, nouns, and verbs are capitalized, but articles and conjunctions are not. Titles are enclosed in quotation marks. Include the type of paper after the title. Provide the place and year of publication. If the paper was unpublished, the date you use will be the year the paper was written.
If the paper was published, you'll follow the general rules for citing an article in Chicago style. Include any additional information necessary to locate the paper. If you accessed the paper online, you should add a direct URL so your readers can go directly to the paper as you found it. If the paper has a database number assigned to it, that can also help readers locate the paper more easily. Follow your instructor's guidance regarding in-text citations.
Chicago and Turabian a simplified version of Chicago style style research papers may use either footnotes or parenthetical citations to cite references in the body of your paper. For parenthetical citations, Chicago uses the Author-Date format. Start with the authors of the paper. Invert the names of the authors so that you list their last names first, followed by their first names.
Separate multiple authors with commas. Provide the title of the research paper. In MLA, enclose the title and subtitle in quotation marks. Capitalize most words, but not short articles or conjunctions unless they are the first word of the title or subtitle. Identify the paper's location. MLA operates on the concept of containers. Your paper is part of a larger whole, which may be part of an even larger whole. In your citation, list the smallest container first, followed by the larger, all the way up to the largest.
Your citation might be: University of Alaska Library Archives. It is perfectly acceptable to quote the work of others and, in fact, it is essential that you do so. Occasionally, you will use direct quotes from another source, but most of the time you will be paraphrasing the work. You will need to create a bibliography or reference list of all of the sources that you use, but you will also need to indicate within the text where your information came from. Referencing is an essential part of writing any research paper , so err on the side of caution.
Common knowledge does not need to be referenced, and you can assume that any reader is fairly knowledgeable about the field. For example, a psychologist will be aware of pavlovian conditioning , so you do not need to reference that if it from your own head.
A biochemist will be aware of how ethanol is made. There are a number of ways in which you can reference the source, but most are based upon variations of MLA and APA style. Check with your supervisor which exact technique you should be using, and be consistent. If you use one style all of the way through, there should be no problem, but mixing the styles makes things unclear to the reader and may well be punished by your supervisor.
For this style, after every paraphrase, you include the surname of the author and the date of writing. Sargeant, at the end of the sentence.
This will allow any readers to find your work in the reference list and check the original source for themselves. There are a few variations, especially with electronic information, but they all follow the same basic structure. If the author has written more than one paper in the same year, then you can use an alphabetical appendix:.
Some departments prefer it if you also use page numbers, if possible. The other difficulty is when there is no author mentioned, and the source was written by an organization.
In this case, you use the name of the organization or a recognized abbreviation. The exact abbreviation does not matter too much, as long as it is clear in the bibliography. The same is true of many electronic sources, although be careful that any non-attributed source is reliable. For multiple authors, it is usual to mention them all the first time, but to use 'et al. If there are six or more authors, you can use the abbreviation straightaway.
Occasionally, you may have to use a source that has been referenced in another source. If you can, try to find the original source and use that. If you cannot obtain this source, then you need to use a two-stage referencing system. Sorgheloos, , as cited in Sargeant, This makes it clear that you could not access the original work, and that you correctly attribute the original findings to the researcher who actually performed the initial research.
A few standards, such as Chicago style and the Council of Biology Editors BCE use a footnote numbering system, where a number is used and cross-referenced with the endnote section and bibliography:.
Although most word processors provide an automatic system of doing this, the added complexity, and the way that it makes the paper unwieldy for the reader, means that it is falling out of fashion.
It is always best to over cite, and avoid accusations of plagiarism , but there are a few times that citation is not necessary.
This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster. MLA Style. These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation and format style.
APA Research Paper Format. APA (American Psychological Association) research paper format is often used in papers related to psychology and social sciences. In this citation, there is a general format in referencing through endnotes/footnotes, in-text, and reference pages. Academic papers in APA citation has general writing guidelines.
We provide custom research papers written to provide you the research paper help that you need. How to cite APA research paper The APA or the American Psychological Association developed a referencing style called the APA style. How do I cite a research paper with no authors but to organizing parties? There are over one hundred authors. by Unclear on Aug 30, If you have a source with seven or more authors you list the first six followed by an ellipses () and the last author.
Dec 21, · How to Cite a Research Paper. Five Methods: Citation Help APA Chicago MLA AMA Community Q&A. When writing a paper for a research project, you may need to cite a research paper you used as a reference. The basic information included in your citation will be the same across all styles%(1). Citing References in the Body (Intro and Discussion) of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper (primarily the Intro and Discussion), whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.