The total expenditure under this programme was Rs lakhs. Total Fund of Rs lakhs were earmarked for the programme.
Besides, special development schemes on irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and communication were also implemented in seven backward districts of the State. In this respect a total sum of Rs lakh has been earmarked.
The contribution of Community Development Programme to the rural development are: The latter could secure the benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration. It is observed that the whole programme suffered from lack of vitality, and was tending to generate only into a number of material benefits for a limited few. The official agencies responsibility for implementation of development activities lacked in understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework.
Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to be a hindrance in initiating the programmes. It is no denying a fact that the expenditure on building the institutions for social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation.
This programme was put into action during The important objective of the programme was to improve the agricultural production in a integrated and intensified manner. This programme was introduced in selected districts of the country. Taking the criteria into consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Orissa. It was decided to implement for the development of Rabi Crops in This programme was introduced in all the 29 blocks of the district.
In the second phase of the programme main thrust was given on the increase of higher yielding paddy in the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on promoting efficient soil and water management practices.
Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the State.
The Third Five Year Plan aimed to achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and increase agricultural production to meet the requirements of industry and exports. The Government of India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme IAAP with a view to cover at least 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the cultivated area of the country and this area should be selected for the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc.
The programme was launched in The aim of IAAP was to bring about a progressive increase in the production of main crops in selected areas by an intensive package approach i. It was decided to implement such programme in the selected blocks of the country as well as the state.
The selection criteria were the blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres. In Orissa a total of 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the period of Fourth Five Year Plan an additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the way for the introduction of Green Revolution in India.
The High Yielding Varieties Programme HYVP was launched in the country from the kharif seasons of as a major plank of new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system.
The important objective of the programme was to attain self-sufficiency in food by the end of The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra.
The HYVP proposes to make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the introduction of new and high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the right amount of fertilizers and extension of the use of pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by insects. To enable the farmers to undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of India RBI agreed to relax the usual terms and conditions in respect of Central Cooperative Banks CCBs for the purpose of financing such cultivators.
During the Fourth Five Year Plan about This has increased to about thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an investment of about Rs. This programme mainly confined to good land and to those farmers who have the resources and the adaptability to embrace the progress of technology. This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in general and Punjab, and Haryana in particular, where wheat is the main food crop.
The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production.
Appropriate schemes have to be drawn up by technical experts with reference to local resources and requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of investment e. It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in certain selected districts. The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan. However, the scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year The schemes were implemented in selected districts by a separate agency constituted under the Societies Registration Act.
The scheme was financed by the State and Central Government on matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by the agency at the rate of 25 per cent to non-tribal small farmers, They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of a number of initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes. Orissa stand second in utilisation of loans in all-India basis after Kerala.
The State utilised about During the period between and , about lakh families in blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted.
The total loans mobilised stood at Rs. A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and agency staff was Rs. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in the country where the Central Government, State Government and Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for the success of the programme.
However, the programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October The principal objective of the programme is to assist the marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of their small holding and skills by undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and Commercial banks.
Besides provision of matching subsidies were also provided to the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth During first two years both short and medium-term loans amounted to Rs A total sum of Rs 1.
This amount has increased to Rs 4. Under the project 2. Among them about 70 per cent of the beneficiaries were enrolled as members of cooperative societies. A Rural works programme was initiated in with the objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas.
During the Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and provision of drinking water. In the Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an area development programme. The strategy of this programme was to improve the economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and on-farm development activities with the objective of optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources.
This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the society like, Small and Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and other rural poor, who have no assured source of income. Co-operative societies were organised to act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the first in its category, which included both the area approach and target group approach.
Considering the concentration of weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of Kalahandi and 14 blocks of Phulbani district in Orissa. During the Fourth Plan the scheme was fully financed by the Government of India. During the years expenditure on the programme was stood at Rs The programme has been extended to 14 more blocks of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts 8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur bringing total blocks to 39 in 4 districts of the State.
The launching of Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to political instability in the country. However the programme received Rs The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs The total Funds available during at; the all-India level was about Rs lakhs. The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs lakhs. The expenditure was thus The percentage share of total expenditure to total funds available was about Next to Africa, India has the largest concentration of the tribal population in the World.
Though all the states have tribal population in various degrees of concentration, majority of them is found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners.
The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and health, housing and other schemes.
Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for achieving these basic objectives. Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods. However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the majority of the tribal population. It is noticed that, in the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc.
Most of these were conceived at the National or at the State level. The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to planning at the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. In this context, the Government of India has sanctioned pilot projects for tribal development in the central agricultural sector.
The outlay on each of these projects was Rs 2 Crores. A new strategy has been evolved for planning the development of the tribal communities during the Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the preparation of a sub- plan for the tribal areas. The first exercise in this regard is to demarcate the tribal areas based on the tribal population.
Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and Tribal women as members. They have to draw up the plan and programmes at ITDA level and review and monitor the developmental activities of different Department. There were about 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of that They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the State up to A total financial outlay of Rs crore was earmarked for the programme in with a view to cover about 2 thousand families.
The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs Crores. It is observed that 36 per cent of the total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against 23 per cent during fifth plan period. During the Seventh Plan period, about 7.
The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the year and was estimated at Rs crores and Rs crores respectively. The Flow of funds during was of the order of Rs Crores. This covered about 34 families. The total funds for the year have increased to Rs crores. Further more the plan expenditure under the programme was Rs Crores. Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in the year Where as this stood at 41 thousand during During about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of Rs Crores.
The total plan out lay for the year and was Rs Crores and Rs Crores respectively. Article 46 of the constitution enjoins up on the State to promote with special care the educational and economic interest of the weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in mid seventies. The objectives of the Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies I T D A were implemented in the areas where the concentration of tribal population is more than 50 per cent, and they live in extremely backward areas.
The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at least 50 per cent tribal concentration. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to be implemented. This Advisory Committee is responsible for drawn up programmes and overseas the implementation. The number of pocket has increased to 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.
The total amount of Rs 7. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period. In two annual plans i. The total investment of Rs 2. A total Fund of Rs During the plan period about 20 thousand tribal families were covered in different programmes. The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in with a view to realising a fast and optimum utilisation of the irrigation potential created in the major irrigation projects.
In Orissa, the programme was launched in covering 52 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to about 5. The basic concept of the Programme was to step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by controlled irrigation and adoption of multi-cropping pattern on an extensive scale. The components of C A D Project which are given highest priority in realising these objectives are: Funds sanctioned for the various schemes by State and Central Government are placed at their disposal in shape of grant-in-aid.
During the Fifth Plan the major achievement was, conducting of a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to make the farmers aware of the needs for having three cropping patterns. A modest beginning was also made in demonstration of proper water Management by Construction of field channels to serve about 3 thousand hectares of land.
A total financial provision of Rs During the said plan period about 1. An area of 2. The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.
A total sum of Rs It is observed from the available data that, during the Seventh Five Year Plan about The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about 1.
The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the same programmes. The Rural Development in India is a very old phenomenon. Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in pre-Independence period.
Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the rural poor and the necessary solution therein. However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by great and intellectual sons of the soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to lack of government attitude and patronage. The British Government had never felt the importance of rural development in the country.
The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and policies. India became an independent nation in August , from political point of view but attend its economic independence only on January After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of Five Year Plan.
During the process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by the rulers, planners and policy makers. Since , a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country. The programmes are varied in nature and approach. Some of the programmes proved to be successful and some failures.
The success and failure of the programmes governed by a number of factors important among them are: Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and proper implementation may bring success to the programme. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of success.
This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against this background, we would like to discuss the structure and functions of the institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from time to time. The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the rural development programmes and permanent statutory in nature. The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation and temporary in nature.
In India, a structure of policy formulating and implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the national objectives of economic development in general and rural development in particular. The administrative organs of Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at the Centre of the Organisational Structure.
The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and Village.
At the Centre, the Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc.
This is the nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of rural reconstruction and development.
The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc. In addition to the Ministry of Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to rural development. The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the Development Commissioner of Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system.
The Ministry of Energy and Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to rural development. The Ministry of Rural Development, for rural development with proper co-operation and coordination from other ministries. The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. NABARD as the apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level.
At the State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for the administration of developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of rural development programmes in the State. However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of Commissioner of rural development is assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and a number of technical officers and subject specialists.
Besides, a representative of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is associated as a member of the Committee. There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and supporting services for rural development. The statutory corporations and Boards works for the implementation of various rural development programmes to their expertise. At the State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes.
They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of various government departments are also participate in the formulation and Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes. One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the committee.
The District Collector is responsible for law and order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the past, the developmental programmes so formulated by the central and state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the District Development Coordination Committee. Prior to October , the rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies.
In the integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to rural development are also implemented. The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the DRDA.
In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in the planning process at the district level. According to the Indian Constitution Amendment 74th Act The State Governments constituted the District Planning and Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and direction to district planning units and to approve the district plans prepared by the planning units.
The board consists of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and other members, viz. The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and other supporting staff. The position of the Chairman of DPB varies from state to state. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for planning and implementation of rural development programmes.
The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of Prof. As per the guideline issued on the block level plan should have the following component: The Administrative setups of the blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is intended to be the steering wheel of the new developmental administration. The BDO is to be assisted by extension officers from different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and women and child welfare etc.
There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the development committee. The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the policies and decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. The social sanctions of the people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and act as a deterrent to arbitrariness.
The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and assigned the specific functions to direct and supervise the activities of the Village Panchayat and to some extent to the Blocks. The village level worker represents the block in village committee. Besides, the Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee.
It is to conclude that, the planning and Implementation of the rural development begins from the root i. India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is worse. In order to break the jinx of rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in nature. They are of sector, area and target oriented programmes.
The Formulation, Implementation of the programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government. In addition the NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the programmes. In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of problems.
The problems were also varied in nature. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. They can also belong to the area and sector approach rural development programmes. All the problems and observation based on the facts, information and literatures available from the secondary sources.
These may not hold good in all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all-round development of the rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in the context of general problems of the rural areas. It fails to give importance to some particular and area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in nature and growth oriented based on real values.
It is often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other. In the process cooperation and coordination are not maintained. The people of India live mostly in rural areas villages. Therefore, it is in the heart of the villages that the nation lives. The welfare of India depends upon the prosperity of the villages. Ways and Means of Rural Development: After our independence, the conditions of the villages have been improved.
The problems of our villages are many and various. For their solution, intelligent guidance of both the government and the people is needed. Educated people should go to the villages and settle there. Mass education should be introduced to remove the ignorance of the villagers. It should be made both compulsory and free. Night schools should be set up for the adults to teach them elementary Hygiene and scientific methods of cultivation.
For the improvement of sanitation, jungles should be cut down. Arrangements should be made for supply of pure drinking water on a large scale.
Rural Development refers to process of improving or uplifting the living conditions of the people living in rural areas. The importance of the Rural Development: The people of India live mostly in rural areas (villages).
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ADVERTISEMENTS: This essay provides information about rural development in India! The concept of rural development is quite comprehensive and extensive. G. Shah defines rural development as “the development of rural areas, often rural development has meant the extension of irrigation facilities, expansion of electricity, . Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. You can view samples of our professional work here. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do.
Even after 56 years of Independence, right from the Nehru era to the Vajpayee era, the rural India of today still short of basic amenities, like drinking water, electricity, roads, housing, food and clothing. Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India: 1. In India, the rural people in general and the weaker section people in particular are to depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood.