Each district has been placed in-charge of a member of the Council of Ministers so that the implementation of the various programmes can be monitored in-depth through the District Level Committee under his Chairmanship. As a measure of incentive, the State Government has introduced a scheme of awards for their field workers.
Steps were also taken to control blindness. During the Sixth Plan Period about 20 thousand fair price shops were opened for the betterment of public distribution system. Besides, the Government reorganised other public sector undertakings. Government of India has issued specific guidelines from time to time for effective implementation of the objectives of the programme so that the goals can be achieved within the stipulated time period.
As per the guidelines different committees have been constituted at various levels to review the implementation of the programme in the grass root level. Realising the importance of Voluntary Organisations in the effective Implementation of this programme, consultative committees on Voluntary Organisations have also been constituted at state and district level. Basing on the assessment criteria, state-wise performance score card was compiled by the Ministry of Programme Implementation, Government of India, Orissa stood at second position during and , seventh during rest of the years of Seventh Five Year Plan.
During different years of the Eighth Five Year Plan, Orissa secured 12th, 8th, 11th and 4th position in the years , , and respectively. In order to accelerate the performance at the field level, district wise assessment of performance under selected items of Point Programme is also made at the State level following the assessment criteria adopted by Government of India. The concept of Minimum needs accepts the view that there is some nationally accepted norms of social services, which should be provided to all classes of people within a time, bound programme.
The provision of free or subsidized services through public agencies is expected to improve the consumption levels of those below the poverty line. Apart from social justice, improved consumption may be expected to contribute to the productive efficiency of the rural and urban workers. This programme was included in Fifth Five Year Plan as an investment on human resources development. The programme resulted from the experience of earlier plans that plan outlays on Social Services were given low priority and were reduced in situations of resources scarcity.
It was also experienced that benefits of social services failed to reach the Weaker Sections without conscious effort to that end.
There were also Inter-and Intra-regional disparities in social consumption resulting from differences in outlays. The programme was also launched in Orissa during the Fifth Plan Period. The important objective of the plan was to increase the consumption standard of the lowest 30 per cent of the population. Since such consumption could be partly private and partly social, the National Programme of Minimum Needs assumed considerable importance.
This accounted for about During Fifth Plan Period about 6 thousand villages were electrified and 4. The Fifth Plan followed by two annual plans i. Under the revised MNP, about roads covering 3, kilometres were completed during the mentioned period.
The enrollment of students in Primary and Middle School during the period from to has increased about more than per cent and per cent respectively. After adoption of Minimum Needs Programme the health services of the State has also received utmost attention. About 10 thousand villages were provided drinking water facilities by either tube- wells or sanitary wells.
Under MNP about 8 thousand acres of land were distributed to about lakh families 0. Under the improvement of urban slums scheme 51 thousand inhabitants of the weaker sections were received benefits. It is also observed that 2.
In the Sixth Plan , it has been mentioned that the programmes under MNP will have to taken as a package and related to specific areas and beneficiary groups. The enrolment of children in schools gathered importance as the National Policy on Education seeks to provide free and compulsory education to all children up to 14 years of age.
In this respect, the Sixth Plan target of About 2 lakh people were enrolled in about 6. During the plan period about 40 thousand tube-wells and 10 thousand sanitary wells were installed under MNP. In the State 2. The programme was also proposed to provide house sites to landless labourers.
In this programme about 17 thousand houses were constructed for the purpose. During the plan period about They are i Rural fuel wood plantation ii Improved chullah iii Public distribution system and iv Rural sanitation. In the state, 6 thousand villages were electrified with an investment of Rs An area of about 37 thousand hectares of land was planted under rural fuel wood plantation programme with an expenditure of Rs 15 Crores.
During the Seventh Five Year Plan with the funds provided from 8th and 9th Finance Commission Awards 8 thousand schools have provided with puccca buildings besides, ten lakh persons were made literate under adult education programme. By the end of the plan period about 36 thousand problem villages were supplied with drinking water facilities either by tube-wells or sanitary wells.
The rural sanitation scheme has been implemented through Panchayat Raj department. Environmental improvement of Urban Slums aim at providing important basic amenities such as water supply, street light, road, drain, community bath and latrines and proper sewerage system etc.
Under this scheme, about 70 thousand slum dwellers were benefitted during the plan period. During the Eighth Plan period following physical targets were achieved with an expenditure of Rs The Food for Work Programme was launched in April The programme aims at generation of additional employment opportunities in rural areas and creation of durable community assets, which would strengthen the rural infrastructure.
The workers were paid in food grains for the job performed by them. Orissa is one of the pioneer States in implementation of the Food For work Programme. Under the scheme food grains are made available to the State Government free of cost by Central Government to supplement the budgetary provisions for creating durable assets where the labour component is comparatively high.
During the period from to 80, an additional employment opportunity worth lakh man days were generated in the State; by utilizing about 4. The FFW programme failed to generate permanent avenues of employment due to the fact that it was not conceived as a part of Integrated Rural Development Programme.
In some special occasions like Draught, flood etc. This is being implemented as centrally sponsored programme with 50 per cent sharing basis between the Centre and States. Additional employment of the order of million man-days per year for the unemployed and underemployed was envisaged under the NREP.
This programme aims to create community assets like, drinking water wells, community irrigation wells, village tanks, minor irrigation works, rural roads, schools, Panchayat buildings etc. During the Sixth Plan, the total employment generated under the programme was of the order of lakh Mandays. This Mandays were generated with a plan expenditure of Rs. The Seventh Five Year Plan has created an additional employment opportunity of about lakh Mandays. A total sum of Rs The Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme RLEGP was launched on the 15th August with the objective of generating gainful employment, creating productive assets in rural areas and improving the overall quality of rural life.
This was a centrally sponsored programme. This was funded by the Central Government on cent per cent basic. Provision was made to allocate 50 per cent resources to agricultural labourers, marginal farmers and marginal workers the remaining 50 per cent weightage to incidence of poverty.
Besides, the programme includes projects of Social Forestry, Indira Awas Yojana and million wells scheme. The programme came into operation in the mid-year of the Sixth Plan Period, in Orissa, only Due to effective implementation of the programme, it gained momentum as a result, lakh Mandays employment was generated during the Seventh Plan Period. Under the programme 5. Social Forestry was one of the important components of the programme about 1. In the State 6 thousand hectares irrigation potential was created under different irrigation schemes.
Under the programme about 5 thousand primary school buildings and 7 multi-purpose Community Centres were constructed. It is observed from the above table that, over the period between and about The total expenditure of Rs. The physical and financial performance of JRY in India is satisfactory, as the Physical achievement is above 90 per cent and the financial achievement is above 75 per cent at the all- India level.
The principal objective of the programme was to provide employment opportunities to the rural youth belonging to the families living below the poverty line. The main thrust of the programme is on equipping rural youth with necessary skill and technology to enable them to seek employment, in different rural economic sectors. The target groups of the scheme are rural youths in the age group of years from families living below the poverty line.
For trades like carpet weaving, gemstone cutting and polishing, diamond cutting and polishing, the age group has been lowered to years.
This age group was also applicable for disabled persons. The Central Government has sanctioned a stipend up to Rs. The banks are also directed to provide finance to the trained youths. It is estimated that, about Out of the total youths trained, about The percentage share of employment to the number of youths trained was The per cent of employment during Sixth Plan was only The inception of Eighth Plan has delayed by two years. During that period two annual plans came into operation i.
The achievement in employment to Trained was Out of them The percentage share of employment to the trained has arrived at During the same period about The number of youths employed during the period was about Thus the percentage of employment to the training was stood at only The objective of the scheme is to encourage the educated unemployed youth to undertake self-employment ventures in Industry, Services and Business through a provision of a package of assistance.
The women and technically trained personnel are required to be given due weightage. The scheme intends to provide self-employment to educated youths who are not able to muster their own capital or who have no access to alternative sources of finance. District Industries Centres DICs in consultation with the lead banks of the respective areas would function as nodal agency for formulation of Self-employment plans, their implementation and monitoring.
The Beneficiaries of the scheme was entitled for loans up to Rs 25 thousand at the concessional rate of interest of 10 per cent per annum in the centrally backward districts and 12 per cent per annum in other districts.
Apart from this, the beneficiaries were entitled to 25 per cent capital subsidy on the taskforce attached to each industrial centre. Repayment will be in installments raining between years depending upon the nature and profitability of the venture. The amount of bank loan was subsequently raised to Rs 35 thousand during More than 10 thousand youths have been benefitted in Orissa, under the scheme during the said period.
A similar programme for the self-employment of urban poor was also launched on September The urban youths were eligible to borrow for undertaking any production or Service activity. They are also eligible for subsidy computed at 25 per cent of the total amount of assistance given.
The scheme is to operate through selected banks. The banker in this scheme is sole responsible for identification, implementation and recovery. During the reign of Congress government one integrated special employment generation programme called as Prime Ministers Rozgar Yojana was launched in our Country, on 2nd October The above two programmes merged with the new programme.
This programme has been implemented in Orissa since The primary objective of focusing attention on the women members of the rural families below the poverty line. This programme aimed at providing opportunities of Self-employment through Training on home-based production and marketing on sustained basis. These groups are provided with a revolving fund of Rs. To supplement government efforts the participation of NGOs was also required. The NGOs are required to implement project for providing employment opportunities to rural women.
Twenty-six NGOs in the State identified under the scheme. Government of India has started two new programmes in These activities are to be implemented in all districts of the State. It is observed that about groups were formed over the period between ; the number of women benefited was thousand with total expenditure of Rs. This is about 4.
However the programme came into operation in The IRD programme was adopted as an area based programme with three well defined objectives, namely; i growth and production ii benefits to the identified target groups living below poverty line of the rural community iii Time frame programmes for attainment of full employment. In the initial years, Community Development blocks were covered under the programme.
With a change of Government at Centre the programme has revised and expanded to all the blocks of the country in 2nd October The important objective of the programme is to generate additional employment and increase the income level of identified target groups namely small and marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, share croppers, rural artisan, people belong to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and women.
The important schemes of development under the programme are, minor irrigation, supply of inputs for agricultural development, land development, soil conservation, soil reclamation and improvement, distribution of Milch and other animals, plough bullocks and bullock carts, horticulture, pisciculture, sericulture, farm forestry setting up of agro-based, forest-based and village and cottage industries taking up meaningful programmes for rural artisans and encouraging self-employment schemes in service and business activities.
The approach of the programme was based on decentralised micro-level planning at the Block level. Above the block, the formulation of projects and implementation of programmes of rural development was vested on only one agency called District Rural Development Agencies DRDA.
The Involvement of Cooperative banks and Nationalised commercial banks was also emphasised in the programme. Besides, the representation of the poor in the implementing agencies, at the district, block and village level was also contemplated. The Grant of subsidies for acquiring productive assets by the poor was also continued. The Central and State Government met the Funds for the programme on matching basis. Over the period between and the norms of IRD Programme beneficiaries has been changed.
For the improvement of sanitation, jungles should be cut down. Arrangements should be made for supply of pure drinking water on a large scale. Tube-wells should be sunk, new wells and ponds should be dug. Every village should be equipped with a hospital and a charitable dispensary for providing proper medical aid to the villagers.
Roads and other means of communication in the rural areas should be improved. The government should teach the farmers scientific methods of cultivation and supply them with implements of agriculture. Co-operative Credit Societies should be set up to advance loans to the peasants. Arbitration boards should settle disputes and differences. Cottage industries should receive encouragement. Educational films should be exhibited. Good libraries should be provided in every village.
In this way, each village should be developed into a self-sufficient unit. It is a happy sign that our government is doing its best to improve the condition of the villages through various schemes of rural uplift.
Rural Development refers to process of improving or uplifting the living conditions of the people living in rural areas. The importance of the Rural Development: The people of India live mostly in rural .
1. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development: The definition of Rural is residuary become all over the world that is defined as an urban area and whatever is not urban known as rural.
This essay provides information about rural development in India! The concept of rural development is quite comprehensive and extensive. G. Shah defines rural development as “the development of rural areas, often rural development has meant the extension of irrigation facilities, expansion of electricity, improvement in the techniques of cultivation, construction of school building and. Rural Development and Poverty; Rural Development and Poverty. 11 November As mentioned earlier rural poverty and booming industry have caused a boom in urbanization, due to the many who have moved to cities in hopes of finding relief from poverty. ESSAY SAMPLE written strictly according to your requirements. A Sample Wanted.
Essay # ismagop.gaated Rural Development Programme (IRDP): The Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) seeks to promote self-employment by developing productive assets and providing inputs to the rural poor through a mix of subsidy and bank credit. Even after 56 years of Independence, right from the Nehru era to the Vajpayee era, the rural India of today still short of basic amenities, like drinking water, electricity, roads, housing, food and clothing.