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Reliability & Validity

What is Reliability?

❶The use of reliability and validity are common in quantitative research and now it is reconsidered in the qualitative research paradigm. The assessment should reflect the content area in its entirety.

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The conclusion validity is focused more on the relationship between the outcome and the program. Internal validity is more on asking what kind of relationship is there between the outcome and the program. Construct validity analyzes how strong the outcome is. External validity is focused more on the general concept of the outcome.

These are some of the differences between reliability and validity. Reliability is more on the consistency of a measurement, while validity is focused more on how strong the outcome of the program was. Reliability is easier to determine, because validity has more analysis just to know how valid a thing is. Reliability is determined by tests and internal consistency, while validity has four types, which are the conclusion, internal validity, construct validity, and external validity.

There is no need to resubmit your comment. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. User assumes all risk of use, damage, or injury. You agree that we have no liability for any damages. The figure above shows four possible situations.

In the first one, you are hitting the target consistently, but you are missing the center of the target. That is, you are consistently and systematically measuring the wrong value for all respondents.

This measure is reliable, but no valid that is, it's consistent but wrong. The second, shows hits that are randomly spread across the target. You seldom hit the center of the target but, on average, you are getting the right answer for the group but not very well for individuals.

In this case, you get a valid group estimate, but you are inconsistent. Here, you can clearly see that reliability is directly related to the variability of your measure. The third scenario shows a case where your hits are spread across the target and you are consistently missing the center.

Your measure in this case is neither reliable nor valid. Finally, we see the "Robin Hood" scenario -- you consistently hit the center of the target. Your measure is both reliable and valid I bet you never thought of Robin Hood in those terms before. Another way we can think about the relationship between reliability and validity is shown in the figure below. Here, we set up a 2x2 table.

For a test to be reliable, it also needs to be valid. For example, if your scale is off by 5 lbs, it reads your weight every day with an excess of 5lbs. The scale is reliable because it consistently reports the same weight every day, but it is not valid because it adds 5lbs to your true weight.

It is not a valid measure of your weight. If a measure of art appreciation is created all of the items should be related to the different components and types of art.

If the questions are regarding historical time periods, with no reference to any artistic movement, stakeholders may not be motivated to give their best effort or invest in this measure because they do not believe it is a true assessment of art appreciation. Construct Validity is used to ensure that the measure is actually measure what it is intended to measure i.

The experts can examine the items and decide what that specific item is intended to measure. Students can be involved in this process to obtain their feedback. The questions are written with complicated wording and phrasing. It is important that the measure is actually assessing the intended construct, rather than an extraneous factor. Criterion-Related Validity is used to predict future or current performance - it correlates test results with another criterion of interest.


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Reliability is a necessary ingredient for determining the overall validity of a scientific experiment and enhancing the strength of the results. Debate between social and pure scientists, concerning reliability, is robust and ongoing.

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Reliability and Validity. In order for research data to be of value and of use, they must be both reliable and valid. Reliability. Reliability refers to the repeatability of findings. If the study were to be done a second time, would it yield the same results? The answer depends on the amount of research support for such a relationship.

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reliability and validity as used in quantitative research are discussed as a way of providing a springboard to examining what these two terms mean and how they can be tested in the qualitative research paradigm. The use of reliability and validity are common in quantitative research and now it is reconsidered in the qualitative research paradigm. Since reliability and validity are rooted in positivist perspective then they should be redefined for their use in a naturalistic approach. Like reliability and.

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Issues of research reliability and validity need to be addressed in methodology chapter in a concise manner.. Reliability refers to the extent to which the same answers can be obtained using the same instruments more than one time. In simple terms, if your research is associated with high levels of reliability, then other researchers need to be able to generate the same results, using the same. Test-retest reliability is a measure of reliability obtained by administering the same test twice over a period of time to a group of individuals. The scores from Time 1 and Time 2 can then be correlated in order to evaluate the test for stability over time.