It works fine with bash 4. Then I get readonly warning on second declare, which is reasonable, and the function completes. The xtrace output is also interesting; implies declare without single quotes is really treated as two steps. Ready to become superstitious about always single-quoting the argument to declare. Hard to see how popping the function stack can be anything but a bug, though.
I'm not sure this behavior got introduced in 4. You might want to use declare -p to workaround this The declare or typeset builtins , which are exact synonyms, permit modifying the properties of variables.
This is a very weak form of the typing  available in certain programming languages. The declare command is specific to version 2 or later of Bash. The typeset command also works in ksh scripts.
This is the rough equivalent of the C const type qualifier. An attempt to change the value of a readonly variable fails with an error message. Certain arithmetic operations are permitted for declared integer variables without the need for expr or let. The variable indices will be treated as an array. A declare -f line with no arguments in a script causes a listing of all the functions previously defined in that script.
This declares a variable as available for exporting outside the environment of the script itself. The declare command permits assigning a value to a variable in the same statement as setting its properties. The declare command can be helpful in identifying variables, environmental or otherwise. This can be especially useful with arrays.
Purpose An array is a parameter that holds mappings from keys to values. Arrays are used to store a collection of parameters into a parameter. Arrays in any programming language are a useful and common composite data structure, and one of the most important scripting features in Bash and other shells. The indexes go from 0 to 3.
Instead of using 4 separate variables, multiple related variables are grouped grouped together into elements of the array, accessible by their key. Indexing Bash supports two different types of ksh-like one-dimensional arrays.
Multidimensional arrays are not implemented. The overall syntax is arrname[subscript] - where for indexed arrays, subscript is any valid arithmetic expression, and for associative arrays, any nonempty string. Subscripts are first processed for parameter and arithmetic expansions, and command and process substitutions. In parsing the subscript, bash ignores any text that follows the closing bracket up to the end of the parameter name. With few exceptions, names of this form may be used anywhere ordinary parameter names are valid, such as within arithmetic expressions , parameter expansions , and as arguments to builtins that accept parameter names.
An array is a Bash parameter that has been given the -a for indexed or -A for associative attributes. However, any regular non-special or positional parameter may be validly referenced using a subscript, because in most contexts, referring to the zeroth element of an array is synonymous with referring to the array name without a subscript.
The only exceptions to this rule are in a few cases where the array variable's name refers to the array as a whole. This is the case for the unset builtin see destruction and when declaring an array without assigning any values see declaration. Declaration The following explicitly give variables array attributes, making them arrays:.
As of now, arrays can't be exported. Getting values article about parameter expansion and check the notes about arrays. You should read this article to understand what's going on. It is best to explicitly specify -v when unsetting variables with unset. You are in a directory with a file named x1 , and you want to destroy an array element x , with.
This applies generally to all commands which take variable names as arguments. Usage Numerical Index Numerical indexed arrays are easy to understand and easy to use. The Purpose and Indexing chapters above more or less explain all the needed background theory.
Since no special code is there to prevent word splitting no quotes , every word there will be assigned to an individual array element. When you count the words you see, you should get Now let's see if Bash has the same opinion:. You can take this number to walk through the array. Just subtract 1 from the number of elements, and start your walk at 0 zero. You always have to remember that, it seems newbies have problems sometimes. Please understand that numerical array indexing begins at 0 zero.
The method above, walking through an array by just knowing its number of elements, only works for arrays where all elements are set, of course. If one element in the middle is removed, then the calculation is nonsense, because the number of elements doesn't correspond to the highest used index anymore we call them " sparse arrays ". Associative Bash 4 Associative arrays or hash tables are not much more complicated than numerical indexed arrays.
The numerical index value in Bash a number starting at zero just is replaced with an arbitrary string:. A nice code example: Checking for duplicate files using an associative array indexed with the SHA sum of the files:. Integer arrays Any type attributes applied to an array apply to all elements of the array. The last index in the first assignment is the result of a , which has already been assigned as 4 , and its value is also given a.
See evaluation order , the right side of an arithmetic assignment is typically evaluated first in Bash. The single quotes force the assignments to be evaluated in the environment of declare.
This is important because attributes are only applied to the assignment after assignment arguments are processed. A special-case of this is shown in the next section. Indirection Arrays can be expanded indirectly using the indirect parameter expansion syntax. Parameters whose values are of the form: This is mainly useful for passing arrays especially multiple arrays by name to a function. This example is an "isSubset"-like predicate which returns true if all key-value pairs of the array given as the first argument to isSubset correspond to a key-value of the array given as the second argument.
It demonstrates both indirect array expansion and indirect key-passing without eval using the aforementioned special compound assignment expansion. This script is one way of implementing a crude multidimensional associative array by storing array definitions in an array and referencing them through indirection.
The script takes two keys and dynamically calls a function whose name is resolved from the array. So far we have seen two types of variables: The third type of variable the Korn shell supports is an array. As you may know, an array is like a list of things; you can refer to specific elements in an array with integer indices , so that a[i] refers to the i th element of array a.
The Korn shell provides an array facility that, while useful, is much more limited than analogous features in conventional programming languages. In particular, arrays can be only one-dimensional i. Indices can start at 0. There are two ways to assign values to elements of an array. The first is the most intuitive: As with regular shell variables, values assigned to array elements are treated as character strings unless the assignment is preceded by let.
The second way to assign values to an array is with a variant of the set statement, which we saw in Chapter 3, Customizing Your Environment. As you would guess, this is more convenient for loading up an array with an initial set of values.
The index i can be an arithmetic expression-see above. Omitting the index is the same as specifying index 0. Now we come to the somewhat unusual aspect of Korn shell arrays. Assume that the only values assigned to nicknames are the two we saw above.
In other words, nicknames and nicknames don't exist. Furthermore, if you were to type:. This is why we said "the elements of nicknames with indices 2 and 3" earlier, instead of "the 2nd and 3rd elements of nicknames ". Any array elements with unassigned values just don't exist; if you try to access their values, you will get null strings. The shell provides an operator that tells you how many elements an array has defined: To be quite frank, we feel that the Korn shell's array facility is of little use to shell programmers.
This is partially because it is so limited, but mainly because shell programming tasks are much more often oriented toward character strings and text than toward numbers. If you think of an array as a mapping from integers to values i. Nevertheless, we can find useful things to do with arrays.
For example, here is a cleaner solution to Task , in which a user can select his or her terminal type TERM environment variable at login time. Recall that the "user-friendly" version of this code used select and a case statement:. We can eliminate the entire case construct by taking advantage of the fact that the select construct stores the user's number choice in the variable REPLY.
We just need a line of code that stores all of the possibilities for TERM in an array, in an order that corresponds to the items in the select menu.
The resulting code is:. We have to subtract 1 from the value of REPLY because array indices start at 0, while select menu item numbers start at 1. The final Korn shell feature that relates to the kinds of values that variables can hold is the typeset command. If you are a programmer, you might guess that typeset is used to specify the type of a variable integer, string, etc.
Operations are specified by options to typeset ; the basic syntax is: Options can be combined; multiple varname s can be used. If you leave out varname , the shell prints a list of variables for which the given option is turned on.
String formatting operations, such as right- and left-justification, truncation, and letter case control. Type and attribute functions that are of primary interest to advanced programmers. The ability to define variables that are local to "subprogram" units procedures, functions, subroutines, etc. If you just want to declare a variable local to a function, use typeset without any options.
Variables in arithmetic expressions do not need to be preceded by dollar signs, though it is not wrong to do so. Arithmetic expressions are evaluated inside double quotes, like tildes, variables, and command substitutions. We're finally in a position to state the definitive rule about quoting strings: When in doubt, enclose a string in single quotes, unless it contains tildes or any expression involving a dollar sign, in which case you should use double quotes.
The arithmetic expression feature is built in to the Korn shell's syntax, and was available in the Bourne shell most versions only through the external command expr 1. Thus it is yet another example of a desirable feature provided by an external command i. Korn shell arithmetic expressions are equivalent to their counterparts in the C language. Parentheses can be used to group subexpressions.
The arithmetic expression syntax also like C supports relational operators as "truth values" of 1 for true and 0 for false. The shell also supports base N numbers, where N can be up to The notation B N means " N base B ". Of course, if you omit the B , the base defaults to We use this for evaluating arithmetic condition tests, just as [[ Instead of producing a textual result, it just sets its exit status according to the truth of the expression: You can also use numerical values for truth values within this construct.
It's like the analogous concept in C, which means that it's somewhat counterintuitive to non-C programmers: See the code for the kshdb debugger in Chapter 9 for two more examples of this.
That syntax isn't intuitive, so the shell provides a better equivalent: It is good practice to surround expressions with quotes, since many characters are treated as special by the shell e. Write a script called pages that, given the name of a text file, tells how many pages of output it contains. Assume that there are 66 lines to a page but provide an option allowing the user to override that.
We'll make our option - N , a la head. The syntax for this single option is so simple that we need not bother with getopts. Here is the code:. At the heart of this code is the UNIX utility wc 1 , which counts the number of lines, words, and characters bytes in its input. By default, its output looks something like this:.
Since we want only the number of lines, we have to do two things. This produces the number of lines preceded by a single space which would normally separate the filename from the number. Unfortunately, that space complicates matters: That leads to the second modification, the quotes around the command substitution expression.
The next group of lines calculates the number of pages and, if there is a remainder after the division, adds 1. Finally, the appropriate message is printed.
As a bigger example of integer arithmetic, we will complete our emulation of the C shell's pushd and popd functions Task The C shell's pushd and popd take additional types of arguments, which are:. The most useful of these features is the ability to get at the n th directory in the stack. Here are the latest versions of both functions:.
To get at the n th directory, we use a while loop that transfers the top directory to a temporary copy of the stack n times. We'll put the loop into a function called getNdirs that looks like this:. The argument passed to getNdirs is the n in question.
The variable stackfront is the temporary copy that will contain the first n directories when the loop is done. The last line increments the counter for the next iteration. The entire loop executes N times, for values of count from 0 to N With this in mind, we can now write the code for the improved versions of pushd and popd:. These functions have grown rather large; let's look at them in turn. If so, the first body of code is run. This, in turn, is passed to the getNdirs function.
The next two assignment statements set newtop to the N th directory - i. The final two lines in this part of pushd put the stack back together again in the appropriate order and cd to the new top directory. The elif clause tests for no argument, in which case pushd should swap the top two directories on the stack.
The first four lines of this clause assign the top two directories to firstdir and seconddir , and delete these from the stack. Then, as above, the code puts the stack back together in the new order and cd s to the new top directory. The else clause corresponds to the usual case, where the user supplies a directory name as argument. A let extracts the N as an integer; the getNdirs function puts the first n directories into stackfront.
Finally, the stack is put back together with the N th directory missing. Before we leave this subject, here are a few exercises that should test your understanding of this code:. Add code to pushd that exits with an error message if the user supplies no argument and the stack contains fewer than two directories. Modify the getNdirs function so that it checks for the above condition and exits with an appropriate error message if true.
Change getNdirs so that it uses cut with command substitution , instead of the while loop, to extract the first N directories. This uses less code but runs more slowly because of the extra processes generated. Relax-and-Recover is written in Bash at least bash version 3 is needed , a language that can be used in many styles. We want to make it easier for everybody to understand the Relax-and-Recover code and subsequently to contribute fixes and enhancements.
Don't be afraid to contribute to Relax-and-Recover even if your contribution does not fully match all this coding hints. Currently large parts of the Relax-and-Recover code are not yet in compliance with this coding hints.
This is an ongoing step by step process. Nevertheless try to understand the idea behind this coding hints so that you know how to break them properly i. Do not only tell what the code does i. Now the intent behind is clear and now others can easily decide if that code is really the best way to do it and easily improve it if needed.
By default bash proceeds with the next command when something failed. Do not let your code blindly proceed in case of errors because that could make it hard to find the root cause of a failure when it errors out somewhere later at an unrelated place with a weird error message which could lead to false fixes that cure only a particular symptom but not the root cause.
Implement adaptions and enhancements in a backward compatible way so that your changes do not cause regressions for others. When there are special issues on particular systems it is more important that the Relax-and-Recover code works than having nice looking clean code that sometimes fails. In such special cases any dirty hacks that intend to make it work everywhere are welcome.
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Later bash (starting from version ) re-implemented most of the advanced features of ksh93 plus a couple of its own. Currently bash is restricted to integer arithmetic, while ksh93 can do floating-point arithmetic as well. Professor, não estou conseguindo achar sua lista de exercícios, sobre termologia.